Navajo Timeline

Year Navajo History World History
  • Jan 31 - Governor Chacón issued the Cebolleta, New Mexico, land grant to 30 Albuquerque residents. The new settlers were placed in possession by Alcalde José Manuel Aragón on March 16, 1800. The grant was within lands claimed by the Navajos, and conflict over possession continued for a number of years, erupting in war in 1804.
  • May 13 - Governor Chacón led an expedition of 500 men against the Navajos in the Tunicha Mountain area, where he "... proposed to launch an attack on their haciendas." He was met by 20 Navajo Chiefs, who asked for peace which he granted after they surrendered 28 cows, 15 blankets, 48 tanned skins, and one Moqui Indian in restitution for robbery they had previously committed.
  • June 21 - Chacóon reported on another expedition against the Navajos led by Lt. José Marique with 250 men to the Sierra of San Mateo and the Magdalena area. They recovered two stray horses near a spring.
  • July 20 - Forty Navajos appeared at Laguna Pueblo and reported that they had gone to campaign against the Gileños but arriving in the Datil Mountains saw signs of so many Apaches that they had turned back.
  • Seat of government moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C., which became the new capital.
  • Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr (Democratic-Republicans) ran for President against John Adams and Charles Pinckney (Federalists). Because candidates for President and Vice-President were not separately nominated, Jefferson and Burr ended in a tie with 73 votes each in the Electoral College.
  • Congress enacted a law dividing the Northwest Territory into two territories, Indiana and Ohio.
  • The Library of Congress was founded.
  • Rembrandt Peale painted a portrait of Thomas Jefferson.
  • Waterhouse gave America's first smallpox vaccination to his son.
  • Semaphore communication system was set up on a series of "telegraph hills" between Boston and Martha's Vineyard, Mass.
  • Second national census showed a population of 5.3 million, including more than 800,000 slaves.
  • 4-tined forks came into common use in American homes at this time, replacing 2- or 3- tined forks.
  • John Chapman ("Johnny Appleseed") visited pioneer settlements in the Ohio Valley, distributing religious material and apple seeds.
  • By secret treaty, Spain ceded the Louisiana Territory to France.
  • Under Napoleon Bonaparte, his army defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Marengo and conquered Italy. French forces seized Munich and defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Hohenlinden. French advanced on Vienna.
  • British captured Malta. East India concluded political and commercial treaty with the Shah of Persia.
  • Beethoven composed Symphony No. 1 in C Major.
  • Goya completed his most famous group portrait, "Family of Charles IV".
  • Cherubini composed Les Deux Journees, his greatest opera.
  • W. Herschel discovered infrared light.
  • Volta invented the electric battery.
  • India's population was estimated at 130 million, and Japan's at about 29 million.
  • Socialism developed in Europe as a reaction to the wretched conditions of industrial workers.
  • Postal service for letters were introduced in Berlin.
  • A yellow fever epidemic killed about 80,000 people in Spain.
  • April 9 - Two Navajo headmen and a Navajo warrior arrived in the capital of Santa Fe with news that the Navajo Nation was at war with the Havasupai and Hopi Indians. In the winter of 1801, a Havasupai boy, presumably a captive from the war, had been purchased by a Spaniard and was baptized December 12, at Jemez, then a trading center for the Navajos.
  • House of Representatives chose Jefferson for President and Burr for Vice-President.
  • Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the U.S. demanding the U.S. ships pay more tribute to the pirates of the Barbary States (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli). U.S. President Thomas Jefferson sent U.S. naval ships to the Mediterranean area.
  • John Marshall became Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
  • Robert Hare, Pennslyvania Chemist, invented a blowpipe (cutting torch) that used oxygen and hydrogen to produce a high-temperature flame.
  • The New York Evening Post was established.
  • A complete skeleton of a Mastodon was unearthed on a New York farm.
  • American, Josiah Bent, popularized hardwater crackers made in his factory in Milton, Mass.
  • The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established with one Parliament and one Monarch.
  • British fleet under Nelson defeated the Danes, allies of Napoleon, near Copenhagen.
  • Treaty of Luneville between France and Austria practically ended the Holy Roman Empire. France also made peace with Naples and Portugal.
  • Czar Paul I of Russia was assassinated and succeeded by his son, Alexander I.
  • British forced the French to surrender in Egypt.
  • Beethoven composed Piano Sonata in C Sharp Minor (Moonlight Sonata) and Die Geschopfe des Prometheus, his only ballet.
  • Schiller published Die Jungfrau von Orleans, the story of Joan of Arc.
  • Paganini began composing a series of 24 capricci for solo violin (-1807).
  • Haydn completed The Seasons, one of his greatest oratorios.
  • Italy's population was 17.2 million; Spain's 10.5 million; Britain 10.4 million. London's population was 864,000; Paris' 547,000; Vienna's 231,000; and Berlin's 183,000.
  • The Union Jack became the official flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Catholics are excluded from voting in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
  • Feb 4 - Juan, a Navajo adult at the point of death, asked for baptism through an interpreter at Jemez. He died the same day baptized.
  • Feb 26 - A delegation of Navajos presented themselved to the Governor in Santa Fe to request that Cebolleta, formerly occupied by Navajos but recently colonized by Spaniards, be ceded to the Navajos. The Governor denied their request on the basis that the Navajos would use the site as a lookout to observe the movements of the Spaniards and as a base for raiding.
  • March 26 - Governor Chacón feared that the Navajos and Gileño Apaches were again attempting to form an alliance against the Spaniards.
  • April 9 - Segundo, Navajo Chief, went to Laguna in an effort to avert war with the Spaniards. Obtaining no results there, the Navajos sent a delegation to Jemez for the same purpose. The Spaniards there considered the visit a "hoax" and when the Navajos left, "... they carried off ten cattle and some animals from the horse herd."
  • April 23 - Navajos attacked herders at Ojo del Espíritu Santo, killed three men and a boy, and took their stock. The Justice of Jemez went in pursuit and overtook them on the Rio San Miguel, a tributary of the Rio Puerco of the East, and recovered a thousand ewes. When he returned home he discovered that other Navajos had run off his stock. Setting out again in pursuit, he caught up with the raiders near Pueblo Pintado, a prehistoric ruin east of present Crownpoint, New Mexico, but seeing that other Navajos had joined the party, he decided not to attack as he had no more than 15 men.
  • April 24 - More than 200 Navajos broke into the plaza of Cebolleta, sacked three houses which had outside doors, and drove off 12 horses and 50 cattle which were pastured in the marsh. From there they went to a sheepherder's ranch, killed three Mexicans, and seized a young boy and the sheep. On the following day the Catholic Missionary at Laguna buried the three who had been killed.
  • April 26 - The Alcalde Mayor of Rio Arriba reported that some Utes encountered 16 Navajos retreating with 7 horses taken in a raid. The Utes recovered the loot, killed one of the Navajos whose scalp they exhibited, and wounded three others.
  • May 16 - Governor Chacón reported to Comandante General Nemesio Salcedo: "I enclose for your excellency the journal of events from April 1 to date, which include hostilities caused by the heathen Navajo nation during the first quarter of the moon in April. Large parties were seen in various directions. They were responsible for the theft of something over 3000 pregnant ewes, 58 head of cattle and 24 horses, and for the death of nine herders in different places, most of whom were asleep, and of one captive boy. If we were to pardon and overlook said outrages, committed in cold blood and unprovoked, as he has been done in the past, it would not be difficult to get them to come down peacefully at once. But the results would be to confirm their feeling that we are afraid of them and that they are superior to us because they are united. And shortly, when they see us off guard, they will repeat their attacks with impunity. This is not so easy for them at present because orders have been given to bring the livestock and horses back a long way from their lands. About the middle of next month, when the citizens have finished planting and the horses have recuperated, continual campaigns will be undertaken, and the results will dictate the manner in which I contract peace when (the Navajo) seek it, demanding among other things that they return all or the greater part of what they have stolen up to then, as I stipulated on the two previous occasions when they rose during my term as Governor."
  • June 8 - The Governor of New Mexico was advised by the Comandante-General at Chihuahua: "... I am informed of the hostilities caused by the Navajo nation, and agreeing with the opinion of your Excellency, I approve their not being granted peace again until we are able to chastise them; and for this purpose your Excellency will issue the order to continue the campaigns in their lands. Inasmuch as your Excellency has said that the pursuit of the said Indians cannot be accomplished until next month, because the residents of the settlement are occupied with their planting, it is necessary that you repeat the proper orders, so that the magistrate of the settlements of Laguna, Jemez, Alameda and Rio Arriba may take care that the property is not left unprotected, and that the individuals in charge of its custody may act with the greatest precaution possible, in order to avoid further damages caused by the aforeside Indians."
  • June 15 - The Catholic Priest at Cochití buried four men recently killed by Navajos in a raid at "el Paraje del Valle" near Cochití. Some two weeks later, in early July, the Priest at Santa Clara buried a young Ute girl and a male citizen, both of whom had been killed by the Navajos.
  • July 16 - The Comandante-General in Chihuahua approved Governor Chacón proposed campaign against the Navajos "with a company of five hundred men, including two officers and fifty soldiers."
  • July 26 - Governor Chacón reported that he had returned from a campaign against the Navajos in which his Spanish troops, accompanied by 375 Ute and Jicarilla Indian allies, had killed four Navajo warriors and one woman, captured 10 slaves and 22 horses and mules. The slaves and livestock were given to the Ute and Jicarilla allies.
  • Aug 4 - A Corporal of the Santa Fe Detachment and three civilians were buried by the Catholic Priest at Laguna. They had been killed the day before, August 3, at the settlement of Cebolleta when 900 to 1000 Navajos attacked the colony. Four soldiers, ten settlers and a woman were also wounded in the attack. The Spaniards claimed to have killed 22 Navajo warriors and wounded 44 others. As a result of the attack, the settlers, after petitioning for permission to abandon the settlement, moved to Laguna without waiting for a reply. The Comandante-General, Nemesio Salcedo, ordered the settlers to return immediately or forfeit all rights to the land. From Nueva Vizcaya he sent a force of 30 men under Lt. NicolÁs Tarín to assist in chastizing the Navajos and to protect the Cebolleta settlers in re-occupying the lands, until re-inforcements could be sent fro Sonora.
  • Aug 28 - Governor Chacón reported that a Spanish force of 600 men under Lt. Antonio Vargas had recently attacked the Navajos killing 57, including 17 warriors, and captured five Navajo slaves, 16 horses, and 33 cattle. Spanish losses included only the death of one Genízaro (Indian raised as a Spanish subject).
  • Sept 21 - Fray Gerónimo Riega, priest at Laguna, gave ecclesiastical burial to two Laguna Indians who had been killed by Navajos. Four days later the priest at Cochití buried a man who had been killed by Navajos.
  • Oct 22 - Orders were issued by Nemesio Salcedo, Comandante-General, to Lt. Antonio Narbona to take troops from Sonora, Mexico, to aid Governor Chacón in his campaign against the Navajos. Operating out of Zuñi, Narbona later attacked Navajos in the Canyon de Chely.
  • Dec 3 - Augmented by 15 volunteers from Sonora, Mexico, Spanish troops under Lt. Antonio Narbona attacked "... at the foot of the Sierra of Canyon de Chelly, a (Navajo) ranchería that consisted of two warriors, a woman, and a girl ... one of the first was killed and the other made prisoner (who died the night of the 7th) as well as the woman and girl and eight horses taken, ..."
  • Dec 13 - Don NicolÁs Tarín in Santa Fe transmitted the journal of his recent campaign against the Navajos to Don Nemesio Salcedo on this date. The transmittal letter exist, but location of the journal is unknown.
  • U.S. expedition under Stephen Decatur entered the harbor of Tripoli and destroyed the U.S. frigate Philadelphia, which had been captured by the Tripolitans.
  • Extremists plan separate northern confederacy in alliance with Aaron Burr. Plan failed when Hamilton blocked Burr's attempt to be Governor of New York. Hamilton also attacked Burr's character. Burr challenged Hamilton to a pistol duel, in which Hamilton was fatally wounded.
  • Jefferson was re-elected President in the first election with separate balloting for President and Vice-President. George Clinton was elected Vice-President. They were Democratic-Republicans.
  • Bananas were imported from Cuba to the United States.
  • Plot to murder Napoleon Bonaparte failed. French Senate and Tribunate proclaimed Napoleon Emperor. Napoleon crowned himself before the Pope.
  • Francis II assumed the title, Emperor of Austria, as Francis I.
  • Spain, allied with France, declared war on Britain.
  • Russians failed to capture the city of Yerevan from the Persians. Fighting continued in northwest Persia.
  • Negroes and mulattoes defeated a large French army in Haiti (western part of Hispaniola). Haiti declared its independence.
  • Karageorge led the Serbs in a successful revolt against the cruel Janissaries (elite Turkish army corps).
  • Schiller wrote Wilhelm Tell, a play based on the lengendary 15th century Swiss hero.
  • Nearly deaf, Beethoven composed two of his greatest works, Symphony No. 3 in E Flat Major ("Eroica") and Piano Sonata in F Major ("Appassionata").
  • Friedrich William Bessel, German Astronomer, calculated the orbit of Halley's comet.
  • British and Foreign Bible Society was founded in London, England.
  • Laws in France were revised and unified with the establishment of the Code Napoleon. It influenced civil codes of most countries of continental Europe and Latin America in the 19th century.
  • Jan 17 - Spanish troops with Indian auxiliaries, Zuñi guides, and citizen milita, numbering more than 300 in all, commanded by Lt. Antonio Narbona invaded the stronghold of Canyon de Chelly. Attacking the Navajos who had entrenched themselves behind fortifications, they killed 93 Navajo warriors and 25 women and children. Three warriors, eight woman, 22 children, and one Moquino (Hopi) were taken prisoners; 350 sheep and goats, and 30 horses and mules were captured during the two-day battle. Included among the prisoners were Chief Segundo, his wife, and two children. Cristóbal, another Navajo Chief, asked for peace. According to custom, 90 pairs of ears from the slain Navajo warriors were taken, but six were lost in transit to Santa Fe. Spanish losses consisted of one Lieutenant of the Opata Nation, one man dead fro pneumonia, 64 among the soldiers, citizens, and Indian alies wounded, and 85 horses which Lt. Narbona had killed because they were worn out.
  • Jan 24 - Lt. Narbona reported that Navajo slaves captured in the recent Canyon de Chelly invasion had been distributed to private citizens of New Mexico and Sonora, Mexico.
  • Jan 25 - Lt. Narbona informed Governor Chacón that he was returning his troops to Sonora and would leave it up to the Govenor to make any further attacks on the Navajos, as he had used up his ammunition, he had men wounded, and had lost many horses, and unless supplied with new resources, he could do no more than he had done already. The route to Sonora would take them through Tomé, New Mexico, and El Paso.
  • Feb 12 - The Catholic Priest at Albuquerque gave ecclesiastical burial to two male adults who had been killed by the Navajos.
  • March 14 - A Navajo boy about three years old, purchased "de la Nación Nabajo" by Don Miguel Quintana, was baptized at the Pueblo of Santa Cruz and given the Christian name of José Miguel. During the same year, four additional Navajos, three of which were children, were also placed in Spanish servitude.
  • March 27 - Anticipating peace with the Navajos, the Spaniards drew up a list of conditions which included Navajo relinquishment of Cebolleta, they would not reclaim Navajo stock found among the Spaniards, exchange of certain captives, the Navajos would not pass with their livestock or possessions the limits of the Canyon of Juan Tafoya, Rio del Ojo, and San Mateo endeavoring to go towards the San Juan River with said goods, at the slightest act of aggression arms would be taken up against the Navajos unless they turned over the aggressors of the stolen property, and Navajos visiting the Governor in Santa Fe would not ask for gifts or subsistence while there. In addition, the Navajos would have to return all stolen stock, believed by the Governor to be some 4000 sheep, 150 cattle, and 60 horses and mules. A treaty was concluded at Santa Fe on the following May 12. The condition of denying gifts to Navajos and other Indians visiting Santa Fe was unusual. Governor Concha wrote in June of 1794, that this was the principal means of maintaining peace and "... As the five tribes referred to frequently meet in the capital city, and as there are various occasions in which they customarily are assembled, it is necessary to apply the greatest attention to their entertainment and gratification on their return. One should have some person entrusted with their maintenance and meals, to whom should be credited two reales for each day during the time of their residence there. Equal care should be taken that they are not lodged together, and that they are distributed about according to and in the manner which has been prescribed. As soon as they are disposed to return to their camps, it is customary to regale them with some clothing, hats, mirrors, orange paint, indigo, knives, cigars, sugarloaves, and so forth ... The outlay should be made by the land of the Governor himself, in order that they may be more pleased ..."
  • April 12 - Governor Real Alencaster reported that the Navajo Chiefs Cristóbal and Vicente, with others of their nation, Cristóbal's nephew and two captive boys from Alameda and Cebolleta, had come to Santa Fe to make overtures for peace and to plead their claim to lands at Cebolleta. While there the Navajos requested of the Governor that as the Navajos had returned children held captive among them, there should be returned the Navajo headman Segundo and his family, who had been captured during Lt. Narbona's invasions of Canyon de Chelly two months earlier. They asked that others of their nation held prisoner also be returned.
  • May 12 - Governor Joaq˙in Real Alencaster concluded a treaty with the Navajos. By the terms of the treaty Cristóbal and Vicente, principal Navajo Chiefs, agreed to relinquish Cebolleta to the Spaniards, to make no alliance, treaty, or communication with a nation or band hostile to the Spaniards, and that , on ocassions which might arise, the Navajos would also make war on behalf of the Spaniards; to return all Spanish captives held by the Navajos, and to surrender Navajos who committed depredations or crimes against Spanish citizens. In return, the Spaniards agreed to allow the Navajos to engage in trade, stock raising, planting and other enterprises. The headman Segundo and 16 other Navajo captives were released. José Antonio García, the interpreter, was later sent among the Navajos to observe if they were keeping the terms of the treaty. Violation of the treaty terms would be interpreted as a declaration of war and would lead to the annihilation of the entire Navajo nation.
  • May 14 - Navajos raided at the Cañada of Santa Clara taking ten cattle and two horses. During the night of the same date Navajos also drove off herds of Jemez Pueblo consisting of 39 horses and mules. The thieves were pursued by Navajo Chiefs Vicente, Cristóbal, and Segundo, who intended to keep the peace recently established. Most of the stock was later recovered and returned.
  • May 19 - Deploring the Zuñis' lack of religious zeal, Fray José de la Prada at Abiquiu wrote Governor Alencaster: "The frequent communication and friendship with the Navajos (that they have preserved even when they are rebelling) can be one of the principal causes of their great decadence in regard to religion, for there can be learned from some gentile and idiolatrous neighbors nothing but heresies, idolatries, superstitions, abuses, little observance (of the law), disrespect of the Divine Law and its ministries. And thus it is verified that on the day of the Fiesta of Two Crosses 30 or 40 attended mass and the rest went off to work during mass. They deny that fornication is a sin, for so many Navajos continually arrive at Zuñi, they do not lack unmarried women with whom to sleep, their justices permitting it and approving of it; which they offered to Señor Don Antonio Narbona, the same dishonest gift, which they should not do so publicly and with so little shame, if they consider it a sin as we (do). In fact their gentile customs and rites have sprouted profound roots in their hearts, and while they are not separated from the Navajos, with who they have practiced marrying Zuñi women, and vise versa, the divine word will not bring about any beneficial effect." The priest also proposed that the Zuñis be moved and relocated on the Rio Grande.
  • July 19 - It was reported to Governor Alencaster that the Navajos were allied with the Coyotero Apaches who lived in the Sierra de Pinal. A short time earlier, on May 28, 1805, it had been reported that certain Navajo captains "... for a long time have been found in the vicinity of the Coyoteros," and in December of the same year, the Spaniards felt that an alliance between the Navajos and the Coyoteros was not to the best interest of the Spaniards.
  • Aug 18 - Fray José de la Prada at Abiquiu, wrote Governor Alencaster regarding the custody of a Navajo girl, María Concepción. In their recent war with the Navajos, she had been captured by the Utes, who "... in their barbarity they mistreated her so that she was covered with arrow wounds and beaten (?) in such a manner that if I (Fray José) had not taken her from their power, without doubt she would already be on her death bed and perhaps in Hell, ... She cost me about 100 'strong' pesos, for the two horses that I gave for her ..." The priest wished to return her to the Navajo Chief Cayetano. Five day later, Frays Francisco de Hocio and Buenaventura Merino recommended to the Governor: "With respect to the Indian María Concepción, who says that the water has no been put on her (unbaptized), it being thus, there is no room for doubt that she can be handed over to the captains of the Navajo Nation."
  • Sept 17 - In response to the request of Chiefs Cristóbal,Cayetano, and Segundo that Navajo captives held by the Spaniards be returned to the tribe, Comandante-General Salcedo wrote to Governor Alencaster from Chihuahua, that he had found only one of the Navajo captives there susceptible of return to their people, possibly meaning that the others had been baptized in which case, the Spaniards refused to deliver them over to the Navajos.
  • Oct 11 - The Alcalder of Laguna reported to Governor Alencaster that "The residents of Cebolleta have told me that the Navajos are wreaking much damage, robbing them of the corn from their fields; that 40 or so families of the said Navajos have come to live at the site of Cebolleta itself, and during the day in full view are pulling up the corn from the fields to feed themselves." Nemesio Salcedo, Comandante-General, decided against allowing the Spanish settlers to abandon Cebolleta and stationed a detachment of 30 men there to safeguard them.
  • Dec 6 - Vicente, a Navajo who lived with his people in the Canyon of Juan Tafoya, east of Mt. Taylor, reported that he had been beaten with sticks by Spanish sheepherders because he asked them not to graze their flocks where he kept his horses. The sheepherders also told him that the Jemez Indians wished to hold a dance with Navajo scalps.
  • Dec 19 - Nemesio Salcedo, Comandante-General de las Provincias Internas, informed Governor Alencaster that the Navajo Chiefs who were expected to visit him in Chihuahua to petition for the return of Cebolleta to the Navajos, as of this date, had not presented themselves. Salcedo added that he regarded with disfavor any potential link between the Navajos and the Coyotero Apaches.
  • Michigan Territory was formed out of the northern part of the Indiana Territory.
  • U.S. forces captured the seaport of Derna in North Africa, a stronghold of Barbary pirates. Peace treaty ended the Tripolitan War. U.S. prisoners were ransomed, and Tripoli granted free passage to U.S. ships in the Mediterranean. U.S. and Tunis sign treaty. However, piracy by the Barbary States continued until 1815.
  • American, Richard Gallagher, Connecticut Scientist, described "Wildoc syndrome", later called "shell shock" or "battle fatigue".
  • First American to win distinction as a Boxer was Bill Richmond, a Negro, who knocked out Jack Holmes (Tom Tough) in the 26th round in England. Richmond never fought in the U.S.
  • First important shipment of ice from New England was made by Frederick Tudor, who exported it to Martinique (West Indies). Shipping ice to the East, especially India, became a profitable business.
  • Napoleon proclaimed himself King of Italy and annexed Genoa.
  • Britain, Austria, Russia, and Sweden formed Third Coalition against France.
  • Napoleon defeated the Austrians at Ulm and the combined Russian and Austrian forces at the Battle of Austerliz. The Russian retreated, and the Austrians signed the harsh Treaty of Pressburg, and ceded much territory to France, Italy, and Bavaria.
  • British under Lord Nelson defeated the combined French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar.
  • Ottoman Sultan appointed Muhammed Ali, Viceroy of Egypt.
  • Fidelio, Beethoven's only opera, was performed in Vienna.
  • Gay-Lussac proved that water was composed of two parts Hydrogen and one part Oxygen.
  • April 23 - Salcedo, in Chihuahua, informed Governor Alencaster that the Navajo Chiefs who visited Santa Fe and requested gifts from the Spaniards were not to be given presents, as was the custom, like those of other friendly tribes because they had renounced this right inthe recently concluded treaty. He further stated that the Navajos did not need gifts because of their productivity in agriculture, their manufacturing abilities such as blanket making, and their raising of livestock. Salcedo also remarked that since the Navajos were still stealing from the province they should exhibit some proof of their fidelity before any gifts should be issued.
  • July 5 - Salcedo advised Alencaster that he had learned from the dairy of operations of Don José Vélez de Escalante, "... that in the Mountain range named Mogollón, a considerable number of individuals of the Navajo Nation have existed, united with the enemy Apaches, upon whose request they went in order to trade blankets, some of which were found in the power of the same Indians; and as this conduct besides is risky in that the referred to Navajos might err in committing hostilities it is contrary to the fidelity that they offered when they were last conceded peace; I warn you (Governor Alencaster) to give charge of the matter to the leaders of the same band, advising them that whenever our troops find them in the company of Indians that are at war they will be treated as true enemies without any exception whatever protecting them."
  • Aaron Burr planned to establish an independent republic in the Southwest. Plot failed when U.S. President Thomas Jefferson ordered his arrest.
  • Noah Webster published his Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, in which he established i and j and u and v as separate letters.
  • Latrobe designed his greatest work,the Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Baltimore), the first Roman Catholic Cathedral in the U.S.
  • U.S. General Zebulon Pike explored the southwestern territory, traveling through Kansas, southern Nebraska, Colorado, and New Mexico. He was the first to see Pike's Peak on this trip.
  • Trial of the striking Philadelphia cordwainers (shoemakers) was the first prosecution of a trade union in a criminal conspiracy for the purpose of increasing their wages.
  • Gas street lighting was introduced by David Melville, who sets up lamps on a street in Newport, Rhode Island.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte formed the Confederation of the Rhine (league of German states), forcing Francis II to renounce the title of Holy Roman Emperor. Empire formally ended.
  • Prussia declared war on France. French armies defeated the Prussians at Jena and Auerstadt. Napoleon occupied Berlin.
  • British blockaded French ports. Napoleon issued Berlin Decree, initiating Continental System (closure of Continental ports to British ships).
  • France and Saxony made peace.
  • Napoleon transformed Batavia into the Kingdom of Holland.
  • Ann and Jane Taylor published Rhymes for the Nursery, a collection that included Jane's "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star".
  • French Sculptor, Clodion (Claude Michel), began work on the Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
  • At the age of 14, Italian Composer, Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, produced his first opera, Demetrio a Polibio.
  • Ludwig van Beethoven, German Composer, composed Symphony No. 4 in B Flat Major and Violin Concerto.
  • Morphine became the first drug to be isolated from a plant, through the work of German Chemist, F.W.A. Serturner.
  • British cotton industry employed 90,000 factory workers and 184,000 handloom weavers.
  • May 22 - On this and the following day, a twenty year old Navajo woman and a six year old girl, born among the Navajos, were baptized at Zuñi.
  • Oct 13 - Apaches attacked the Pueblos of Zuñi. As a result, Governor Alaencaster ordered an expedition of 250 men from among the Spanish and Indian residents to march against them. Chief Segundo, in order to convince the Governor of the Navajos' good faith, promised to furnish a contingent of Navajos to accompany the campagin.
  • Nov 1 - The Navajo Chief Segundo delivered to Santa Fe Juan Andrés, a fugitve Indian from Jemez, and while there convinced the Spanish officials that, although the Navajos on occasion had been friendly with the Mescalero and Gileño Apaches, and at other times had waged war against them,they were not allied with them against the Spaniards. Segundo also informed Governor Alencaster that since the peace had been concluded between the Navajos and the Spaniards in May of 1805, a number of Gileño Apaches had come to Canyon de Chelly and persuaded a group of Navajos to return as friends to their country. En route, when the Navajos least expected it, the Gileños took their saddled horses and left them on foot. "... as a result of this behavior, and shameless treachry, the Navajos went and took from them in their country nine horses: that the former came and carried off from the Sierra of San Mateo 12 horses of the Navajos ..." In another campaign, the Navajos succeeded in capturing four Mescalero slaves and killing 15 other men and women; one Navajo was lost. In a final campaign, they killed one woman and gravely wounded a Gileño Apache.
  • Aaron Burr was tried for treason and acquitted.
  • Congress passed Embargo Act, which prohibited U.S. trade with any foreign country. Act tried to force Britain and France to remove restrictions on and stop interference with U.S. trade. New England merchants opposed Act as scheme to deprive them of business.
  • Robert Mills designed the wings of Independence Hall, Philadelphia.
  • Robert Fulton launched the Clermont, a 150-foot-long steamboat that travelled 150 miles up the Hudson River in 32 hours.
  • Huge meteor landed in Weston, Connecticut.
  • Combined Russian and Prussian armies fought the French in the indecisive Battle of Eylau. French defeted the Russians at the Battle of Friedland.
  • Napoleon concluded the Treaties of Tilsit with the Czar and the King of Prussia. Russia recognized the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and other territorial changes. Prussia lost half of its territory.
  • French army occupied Portugal. Portugal's royal family fleedto Brazil.
  • Russia fought the Ottoman Turks for control of Moldavia and Wallachia.
  • Napoleon, Emperor of France, introduced a commercial law code into France.
  • July 5 - After investigating the complaint of Navajo Chiefs Segundo and Delgadito that Spanish citizens from Cebolleta and Alameda were enroaching upon Navajo farms and grazing lands along the Rio Puerco and in the canyons of Juan Tafoya and Pedro Padilla in the Mt. Taylor area, the Governor of New Mexico, convinced that Navajos had prior rights there, decided in their favor, and on July 5, Lt. Don Vicente López reported that he had placed the Navajos in possession. The citizens of Cebolleta, which area had been taken from the Navajos earlier, considered the Navajos in the Cebolleta region as their bulwark and protection against marauding Apaches from the south.
  • July 29 - Chief Cristóbal and a group of Navajos arrived in Santa Fe. In consideration of the Navajos having kept the peace established in 1805, the Governor gave the Chief some presents. When Chief Segundo visited Santa Fe a week later, on August 8, he was treated well, but given no gifts.
  • Sept 4 - The Alcalde of Albuquerque, Don Lorenzo Gutiérrez, reported that 16 Apaches had killed 19 persons of both sexes near the Pueblo of Isleta. The Apaches were pursued to the Magdalena Mountains by a party led by Bartolomé Baca, but they were unsuccessful in overtaking them and returned. In order to punish the Apaches, the Governor gave permission for a pursuit party of 140 citizens and Navajos to be formed and reinformed by 30 soldiers, to take to the field.
  • Congress prohibited the importation of African slaves.
  • Congress tried to enforce the Embargo Act. U.S. farmer and merchant opposition resulted in smuggling and other illegal trade. France confiscated U.S. ships and cargoes in European ports.
  • James Madison was elected U.S. President, and George Clinton was re-elected Vice-President on the Democratic-Republican ticket.
  • Earliest legal periodical, the American Law Journal, was founded in Baltimore, Maryland, by John Elkin Hall.
  • John Jacob Astor established the American Fur Company, thefirst of several companies founded by him in the West that made him the dominant figure in the industry.
  • First Bible Society was established in Philadelphia, its first President, the Rev. William White.
  • French invaded Spain and captured Barcelona and Madrid. Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte, was made King of Spain. The Spanish rose in revolt.
  • British landed in Portugal and defeated the French at Vimeiro, French, British, and Portuguese, negotiate the Convention of Cintra, by which the French surrender Lisbon.
  • Congress of Erfurt between Napoleon and Alexander I renewed Franco-Russian alliance concluded a Tilsit in 1807.
  • Napoleon's occupation of Spain encouraged the birth of separatist movements in Mexico and South American countries.
  • Ludwig van Beethoven composed his Fifth Symphony (No. 5 in C Minor) and Pastoral Symphony (No. 6 in F Major).
  • Schiller convinced Goethe to complete the first part of Faust.
  • Blake completed Milton, an epic poem.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte abolished the Inquisition in Spain and Italy.
  • Source of the Ganges River in India was discovered.
  • Extensive excavations began in Pompeii in Southern Italy.
  • First printing press was established in Brazil.
  • July 14 - Four Navajos, with a load of blankets and buckskins to trade, arrived in Santa Fe. They remained there for four days before returning to Navajo country.
  • Aug 29 - When four Navajo presented themselves before the Spanish officials "... asking that they be permitted to pass to the Sierra Blanca to steal horse herds from the enemy Faraon and Mescalero" Apaches, the Spaniards countenanced their request, and on August 29, it was reported that the Navajos had returned, successful in their venture against the Apaches.
  • Oct 5 - María Loreta, a Navajo girl captive, was baptized by the Catholic Priest at Jemez Pueblo.
  • Oct 29 - Twenty Gila Apaches on horseback attacked the Zuñis killing five men and two women who were harvesting corn near the pueblo. Pursued by the villagers, they escaped. While preparing an expedition of 200 men from Zuñi, Laguna, and Ácoma to take up the pursuit, four Navajos and the interpreter Antonio García arrived and informed them that the Gileños who had attacked "... were (now) very distant and gathered with the Tontos in great numbers." It was decided to postpone the expedition until Captain Bartolomé Baca should return from the campaign in which he was engaged at the time.
  • Dec 24 - Christopher "Kit" Carson, who was destined to play a major part in the subjugation of the Navajos and their forced exile to Fort Sumner on the Pecos River in eastern New Mexico from 1864 to 1868, was born in the wilderness of Iredell County, North Carolina.
  • Dec 27 - The Mescalero Apaches had been at war against the Spaniards of Sonora, Mexico, and the Spaniards of New Mexico were attempting to obtain the Navajos as allies should the Mescaleros turn against them. On this date Antonio García Noriega of Jemez wrote Governor interino Manrrique: "Since peace has been requested the Mescaleros have not returned to the Navajo Nation, and the Navajos have determined that at the time they return they will fall upon them and give you the headsof said Apaches ..."
  • Congress passed Nonintercourse Act, repealed the Embargo Act, and resumed trade with all countries except France and Britain.
  • Illinois Territory was formed from the western part of the Indiana Territory.
  • British and Portuguese forces under Arthur Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington), drove the French out of Portugal, invaded Spain, and with the help of the Spanish army, defeated the French at Talavera.
  • Napoleon captured Vienna, was defeated at Aspern, and defeated the Austrians at Wagram. By the Peace of Schonbrunn, Austria lost territory to France, Russia, Bavaria, and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.
  • Russian conquered Finland (ruled by Sweden) and annexed it.
  • Napoleon annexed the Papal States and imprisoned Pope Pius VII.
  • Treaty of Amritsar between Britain and the Sikhs established the northwest boundary of the East India Company's territories in India.
  • Ludwig van Beethoven composed Piano Concerto No. 5 in E Flat Major (The Emperor).
  • Cherubini's Mass in F Major marked his decision to compose church music.
  • George Cayley, English Inventor, built the first successful glide.
  • In Philosophie Zoologique, Lamarck suggested that the giraffe evolved its long legs and neck by its continual stretching for treetop food.
  • Dec 12 - Juana Gertrudis, a Navajo girl captive, was baptized by the Catholic Priest at Belen.
  • Jan 24 - María de los Dolores, a Navajo child, was baptized at El Cañon near Jemez by the Catholic Priest and "placed" in the house of Antonio García, Navajo interpreter. The parents of the child were listed as unknown.
  • Nov - In his report on the Southwest published in Cádiz, Spain, in November, 1812, Pedro Bautista Pino wrote that the Apaches then "... were at peace wth the Yutas, the Navajos, and the Comanches 'which are the three most powerful nations and which have put the Province (of Nuevo Mexico) in the greatest danger of being lost ... The Navajo nation is 25 leagues from our frontier, between the pueblos of Moqui and Suni and the capital ..."
  • Sept 14 - Lt. Vicente López reported from Laguna that "... two Navajos have gone to rob the Faraon Apaches and they have told me that at Agua Caliente they met a Faraon and they killed him and they brought his two animals which were a saddle mule and a horse and ... that as a result of this, four came and took from said Navajos four horses ..."
  • July 21 - Five Apaches mounted on horseback stole 12 animals, including one burro, from Zuñi at night. The burro was found dead the next day by the pursuers, but the Apaches escaped with the other stock. It was also reported by Rafael Baca from Laguna that Navajos from Canyon de Chelly, returning from a trading expedition to Zuñi, met two young Zuñis from whom they took some blue beads and other possessions.
  • Oct 2 - The interpreter of the Navajo Nation reported that the Navajos had made a campaign against the Mogollón Apaches, killed one and returned with six captured slaves. Sixteen dayslater, on October 18, more than 100 Mogollon Apaches attacked the Zuñis, killed three men and one woman and escaped with a herd of sheep.
  • Aug 20 - José Mariano de la Pena at Pajarito asked Governor Don Pedro María de Allande for orders as Bartolomé Baca had recalled the troops because of a call for help from the Alcalde of Laguna, who expected an attack on Cebolleta by the Navajos.
            The Navajos suspected the Spaniards of aiding Comanches in recent attacks upon them and on August 20, Ignacio María Sanchez Vergara from Jemez, wrote the Governor: "Today at about 8 in the morning I was called by the Navajo, Salvador, who with two others arrived at the Pueblo of Jemez as ambassador from his Nation, which is found sufficiently saddened by what was done to its people by the Comanches, persuaded that having entered through our neighborhood to raid them, we have a hand in their misfortune ..."
  • Sept 10 - José Vicente Ortiz reported from Laguna to Governor Allande that Navajos were abandoning their fields and habitations around Encinal, San José, and Cubero and joining their tribesmen at Canyon de Chelly for fear of raiding Comanches. Ortiz wrote the Governor further: "... although they leave their lands they do not want the Spaniards to appropriate them and that they will not have security in this unless you (the Governor) send them a paper in which you order that no one settle on their lands and that said paper will protect it. Also they ask you that by sure knowledge or other reports it is known that the Comanches are coming that you send them word by Laguna so that from there they might be warned and be able to escape." The Governor had been ordered by Bernardo Bonavía of Durango, Mexico, to avoid a rupture with either the Navajos or the Comanches and to attempt to make peace between them and to prevent a Comanche alliance with the Anglo-Americans.
  • Dec 26 - From Jemez, it was reported by Ignacio María Sánchez Vergara to the Governor: "Due to the information sent me of what happened to the sheep herders at the hands of the Navajos, concerning which I advised you by letter of the 23rd inst., it was disclosed by the party of soldiers which I sent to investigate that the shepherds who appeared before me with such information had no other reason for such agitation that the arrival of a few Navajos at their sheep camps. They thought that they had come there to kill them with no warning whatever, so they concluded to abandon their flocks and flee, which they did, exciting the other shepherds; whereupon they also left the flocks without anyone to herd them. The party of soldiers found them and took care of them unitl to owners arrived to take charge of them, they being residents of Bernalillo; the remaining herds of sheep which were scattered were gathered by my party of soldiers and turned over to the owners. Señor, the informant shepherds should be punished for creating such a disturbance, causing so much damage and inconvience to so many individuals, due to such great falsehoods which they conveyed."
  • March 2 - After Navajos and Utes stole some horses and killed some cattle in the vicinity of Jemez Pueblo and a party was sent in pursuit and scouts were stationed to protect the herds and flocks, Governor Allande issued a circular to the Alcaldes of Cochiti, Alameda, Albuquerque, and Belen ordering these jurisdictions to maintain a constant vigilance against further attacks.
  • June 20 - From Jemez, four days after the following incident occurred, Ignacio Maria Sanchez Vergara reported: "On the 21st, about eleven in the morning, a resident of Bernalillo who had been tending his flocks arrived and told me that the night before the Navajos had killed Juan Alire, a resident of Corrales, who had gone to Los Ranchos in order to drive down some ewes to milk, and that they had also wounded four sheep herders. This fatality took place in the spot called San Miguel, where the two young herders were killed two years ago. When I received this news, I at once sent a squad of men to investigate the fatality and anything else they could find, and gather all the information, and at once withdraw in order to avoid everything possible. The said squad, up to now, which is about five in the morning, has not returned. Don Hilario Mestas notified me that he had noticed a feeling of unrest in the Navajo tribe, that they are committing many robberies of horses in different places and threatening war. When the Indians reached the ranch of Don Luis Baca, they took a number of horses, but they were taken away from them, although they carried away some, and they have also taken other horses. As soon as the squad of men returns, I will notify your Excellency of the result." He continued later: "... the party who was in charge of the squard ... returned, and he tells me that he arrived at the fatal spot where he found himself among the people of Cebolleta who were already there. He examined the corpse and the three wounded who are in danger, and who, by now, may have died. He also tells me that he had not noticed anything else; that they had not taken anything; that the Navajos had been living there, but that as soon as they committed the crime they had moved away. He notices that this misfortune had happened on account of a gambling debt between the Navajos and the residents, and these murders were committed by the two sons of the Navajo named Vicente. The dead men was buried there, the wounded having been taken to their homes. Nine men of the squad remained in the place guarding the herds, and observing every chance to advise us at once of any trouble. Not finding anything else to do, these nine men remained with the people from Cebolleta, where the dead and wounded men had resided, with the exception of one of the wounded who was from Pena Blanca ... "
  • June 25 - Governor Allanded informed Vergara, Alcalde of Jemez, that one Don Mario Mestas of San Isidro had reported witnessing a great movement among the Navajos, and that a general uprising was threatened. The governor dispatched the interpreter Antonio Garcia, with 18 Spaniards and Jemez Indians to visit the Navajo chiefs to find out their intentions and to apprehend the murderers of Juan Alire killed five days earlier and to recover the stock taken at that time.
  • July 1 - It was reported that Navajos killed one Vincente Garcia, a citizen of Santa Cruiz, in the jurisdiction of Abiquiu, and succeeded in taking 400 sheep, two burros, and other livestock from the Rio de las Gallinas, or Arroyo del Capulin.
  • July 6 - At Cochiti, the Catholic Priest gave ecclesiastical burial to Antonio Ganna, male adult, who had been killed by the Navajos. During the same month, four other adult males, also killed by Navajos, were buried by Catholic Priests at Albuquerque, Sandia and at San Juan.
  • July 8 - The Alcalde of Jemez reported to the governor that when the interpreter, Antonio Garcia, with 18 men had met with the Navajos whom they encountered near the Tunicha Mountains, Chief Joaquin, indicated that a general uprising against the Spaniards over encroachment on Navajo lands was planned and would soon occur. This corroborated the news from Zuni that the Navajos had risen up along the routes for an attack.
  • July 20 - Nvajos from the Carrizon Mountains, accompanied by some Ute Indians, made a raid upon the settlement of Abiquiu, New Mexico. Five of the 17 horses and mules taken were recovered by the Navajo headman, Joaquin, and turned over to the Alcalde at Jemez. When Joaquin, his brother, and two nephews arrived July 20 at Jemez, they expressed their loyalty to the Spaniards and reported that the Navajos were preparing for war. Joquin also stated that when his efforts to dissuade the Navajos proved usless, he had separated his band from the rest of the tribe, Joaquin stated further that if the Spaniards would take the field against the Navajos,he and his warriors would accompany and aid the Spanish troops. The Alcalde of Jemez extended the chief and his companions the greatest courtesy. Joaquin's band formed the nucleus of that remnant of the Navajo Tribe later referred to as the Ana'aii, of "Enemy Navajos".
  • Sept 1 - Fray Mariano Penon of Laguna gave ecclesiastical burial to Jose Antonio Valverde of Tome, Pablo Urrivali of Sabinal, Justo Chaves of Belen, Juan Truxillo of La Joya, Miguel Antonio Chaves of Atrisco, and Pedro Aragon of Cebolleta - all had died at the hands of the Navajos who attacked near the settlement of Cebolleta. Early in 1819, Fray Penon complained that he had not yet been paid for the burials.
  • Sept 5 - The Alcalde of Albuquerque, Manuel Ruvi de Celis, reported to Governor Interino Facundo Melgares that Navajos recently took some sheep and goats from La Cebolla. A scouting party was sent out and found 302 head of the stock which the Navajos apparently had left behind, all belonging to the Pueblo of Acoma.
  • Sept 6 - In a letter to Comandante-General Alex Garcia Conde in Durango, Mexico, Governor Melgares asked for 200 cavalrymen and infantrymen from Sonora and 100 from Nueva Vizcaya to reinforce the defense of New Mexico against a rumored attack from the east by Anglos allied with Comanches and Kiowas, and to bolster the western frontier against the Nvajos. The Comandante replied that 100 soldiers each from Chihuahua and Sonora were on their way to New Mexico, and that Melgares should proceed with the Navajo campaign as planned to humble "the perverse Navajo," before they could overrun the province.
  • Sept 9 - The Catholic Priest at Tome gave ecclesiastical burial to two male adults, residents of Belen, who had been killed by the Apache-Navajos. Both were buried at Belen.
  • Sept 15 - Alex Garcia Conde in Durango, Mexico, commented on Governor Melgares' letter that Navajo attacks against the inhabitants of New Mexico had abated and almost ceased, and that the Navajos had sent Ute emissaries to conclude a treaty on their behald. Conde wrote that the Nvajos should be made to pay for damages which they inflicted during the recent war.
  • Sept 17 - Juan Lovato, Alcalde at Taos, New Mexico, reported to Governor Melgares, the thief of 30 horses and that the tracks of the thieves led west towards of Latir (Ute Mountain), and that the robbers, mounted on horseback, were either Navajos or Utes.
  • Sept 26 - Two Spanish citizens from Atrisco were killed by Navajos and given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest at Laguna Mission.
  • Oct 4 - Pedro Antonio Padilla, resident of El Bosque Grande, was killed at Mora, New Mexico, by "Navajos together with the Apaches," and given ecclesiastical burial at Picuris on this date by the Catholic Priest of the Pueblo. Two days later, Antonio Olguin reported from Mora, that Navajos, believed to have been accompanied by some Jicarilla Apaches, had run off some horse herds and killed a stock herder in the vicinity of Mora. They had been pursued, but because of heavy rains could not be overtaken and those in pursuit were forced to return.
  • Oct 25 - Salvador Garcia at Zuni wrote Governor Melgares that he had not been able to ascertain that the Navajo Chief Joaquin, was the one involved in the recent opposition that the Pueblo of Zuni made in favor of the Navajos, or he would have detained the chief. He requiest instructions from the governor as to how to handle the matter.
  • Nov 4 - Fray Mariano Penon of Laguna, gave ecclesiastical burial to Diego Antonio Sanchez, a soldier of the Santa Fe Company, who died of wounds received at the hands of the Navajos.
  • Nov 18 - Juan de Dios Pena, Alcaldeof Albuquerque issued a proclamation to all subjects of that jurisdiction, and especially to the owners of cattle and other stock, that because previous orders to remove their herds from the western frontier had been ignored, any who failed to bring in their rocks to the zone of safety against Navajo depredations would be fitty pesos and sentenced to one month in jail.
  • Dec 18 - Governor Melgares returned from a 49-day campaign against the Navajos, " ... very painful due to the fury of the weather, always cruel here and more so in the present season ..." during which his troops killed seven Navajos and captured two along with 2300 sheep and 73 saddle and pack animals including three mules. The governor complained that he would have had more success if the Navajos " ... did not do anything except flee; only on the highest peaks would one or another present himself on a cliff: I left several after having made efforts to attack them, all of which were fruitless because impossible, and one night they shot some arrows at me and wounded seven that are already almost recovered, protected by a strong north wind that blew and a cloudy darkness that obscured them from view and scattered in small groups. They have sent me a cross and propositions of peace, but my answer has been that they should render homeage to our kind sovereign, reduce themselves to living in the mountain range that bears the name of the tribe, repay the damage that with the Navajos that " ... after diplomatic andkindly negotiations with the perfidious Navajo" these Indians killed a Laguna and stole some horses. The governor thus planned to attack the Navajos from all sides. He continued: "I do not believe that it is humanly possible for them to escape ruination or flight to the other side of the Rio Colorado, which empties into the sea at California, in which case, we shall be rid of this troublesome neighbor."
  • Jan 9 - Jose Miguel, killed by Navajos, was given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest at Laguna Mission.
  • Feb 1 - Governor Melgares issued orders from Santa Fe to the Alcaldes of Alameda, Albuquerque, and Belen to prepare for vigorous resistance to a large group of war-like Navajos reported to be heading for the Rio Abajo.
  • Feb 16 - Interim Governor Antonio Cordero reported that "... the 16th of February there presented themselves to said Justice (of Zuni) five gentile Indians of the Hopi Pueblo, making known the oppression that the Navajo Nation has finally put upon them, as a result of having settled with all their goods at a distance of two leagues from the same Hopi Pueblo [First Mesa], and consequently asking that they be aided on our part to free them from the damages that they suffer ..."
  • Feb 20 - Governor Melgares informed Custos Hozio,head of the Catholic Church in New Mexico, that the Cacique and others of the Hopi Tribe were hard-pressed at Ojo de la Vaca (Black Mountain area) by the Navajos, and were seeking help from the Spaniards, so there was hope of founding a Hopi Mission. The governor stated that he was sending a division against the Navajos and asked prayers for success.
  • March 4 - Fray Mariano Penon at Laguna, gave ecclesiastical burial to two men who had been killed by "the enemy Navajos." During the month of March - from the 8th to the 15th - the Catholic Priest at Albuquerque buried four other adult males who had been killed by Navajos - two from Alameda, and two from Atrisco.
  • March 18 - Governor Melgares reported to the Comandante-General that he had just returned from his second expedition against the Navajos. During the campaign, troops under his command "... attacked the Navajos in two pueblos of this (Hopi) tribe, Guaype and Tegua (Walpi and Tewa), it killed several and drove them very far away, making the Hopis see the frankness and promptness with which their well-being and tranquility is attended to. Now I send five Indians of those of Sandia to prepare them and attract them, so that when there might be an opportunity, two priests might go conclude the work of God willing I see done. It is no small thing that the Hopis might return (as it appears is going to happen) to the Dominion of our kind Sovereign, after having lived for 138 years as fugitives from the Spanish people and from the Supreme Crucified Jesus. Never since that remote epoch have they asked help from New Mexico, perhaps fearful of their crime, or that we might subjugate them: I believe that I will do it with diplomacy, giving as I have now done pleasure in that which is proper in the service of His Majesty and making them see how much they have lost, how many humiliations they have suffered from the Navajos and the other tribes, by not being under the auspices of the only true God and the King our Lord." The governor reported further that "Captain Don Andres Sanudo still remains with a party annoying those gentiles in their country." Results of the campaign included 36 Navajos killed, 20 of both sexes taken captive along with 470 sheep and goats, and 24 horses and mules, which animals they ate or divided among the citizen auxiliaries with the troops.
  • March 31 - The Navajo Chief Joaquin, with four INdians of his band, presented themselves to Rafael Montes at Jemez "... soliciting pardon and our alliance in peace, so ... to enjoy our affection and peace, all for the sake of those of his kind and Nation, who assured me they are willing and desirous of gaining the cited favor; they have presented me with a Holy Cross that the soldier bearer carried in his hand, and four captives that from the same hour that they arrived have been in my power, two from Cebolleta, one from Sausal and the other from Atrisco; ..." Requesting instructions from the governor, Melgares replied: "... you will say to the leader Joaquin that I am sympathetic of the miseries that they suffer and evils that the war that they looked for has brought them, using mercy, I concede thempeace, that for the respective agreements and contracts I will go or will send a division to Cerro Cabezon, and I will advise them when, so that all the people of Navajo united may hear me, or what the captain that I might send might say, that I only desire their well being, that they try to do their planting, and that I have finished pursuing them, because I judge they have opened the eyes to their best interest; that the said Joaquin, with respect to his good conduct, that I return tohim the paper that Captain (Andres) Sanudo brought, and that I send another signed by my hand, naming him captain, so that the Spaniards and the Navajos might know how much I appreciates the services that he does: He should go and announce to his people the favor, and that they have liberty to enter there (Jemez) and go out, that they should not again make me angry with robberies and mischief."
  • April 10 - A Navajo girl, four or five years old, was baptized at Sante Fe. She was a captive servant in the house of Fray Francisco de Hozio. During the same year a Navajo adult, Juan Domingo, was baptized at Laguna. On this date, five Navajos cam to Jemez to trade. When Governor Melgares was consulted as to whether they should be allowed to go on to trade with other pueblos, the governor replied that for the time being, they could go only to Jemez, since there were no interpreters elsewhere, and misunderstandings, might arise.
  • Aug 21 - Governor Melgares Joaquin, Navajo Chief, Gordo, the Peace Chief, and three Navajo Captains, Vicente, Salvador, and Francisco, agreed on a treaty which set up a position of "General" among the Navajos to negotiate with the Spaniards on problems which might arise, estasblished peace, confirmed to the Navajos all lands they had used for agriculture, stock-raising, or other purposes up to that time, allowed Spanish citizens to graze their stock in Navajo country as far west as Canyon Largo, the mouth of Chaco Canyon, and at Blue-water, arranged for hostages to insure peace, guaranteed protection to the Hopi Indians, and prisoners held in Santa Fe were to be returned to the tribe. Joaquin, leader of the band which had separated itself from the tribe, was appointed Navajo "General" reponsible for the actions of the entire Navajo nation, and it was stipulated that he live as near possible to Jemez.
  • June 26 - A two-day-old Navajo was baptized at Sandia Pueblo and given the Christian name of Jose Guadalupe by the officiating Catholic Priest.

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