Navajo Timeline

Year Navajo History World History
  • Juan Jose Lobato reported to Governor Cachupin that three Ute Chiefs arrived at San Juan Pueblo bringing, among other things, a Franciscan Almanac, and related: "The Utes (had) attacked the penoles of the Navajos with such force that the Apache (Navajos) found the action bloody for them; some were killed, others captured, with no danger to the Utes, who strove for a complete victory by closing in to reach the top of the mesa. Then the Apaches came out, after stacking their arms, carrying a wooden cross above which was this almanac on a pole ... Thereupon those who before were lions became lambs, surrendered their arms, and received the cross and the false letter."
  • Benjamin Franklin performed his famous kite experiment, demonstrating that lightning was electricity.
  • Thomas Bond established the first general hospital in the colonies in Philadelphia. Pest-houses (contagious-disease hospitals) had been started earlier in Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston, S.C.
  • French began building forts across Pennsylvania and into Ohio to stop British invasion of their territory.
  • Jonathan Edwards published Misrepresentations Corrected and Truth Vindicated in which he defended his strong religious principles.
  • When the Montano Land Grant along the Rio Puerco of the East was approved, the Spanish settlers were ordered to build their town as a fortess with only one gate to guard against Navajo attacks.
  • Benjamin Franklin was the first American to be awarded the Copley Medal by the Royal Society of London. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society, an Associate of the Académie des Sciences (France), and received honorary degrees from three American colleges. His letters repeatedly made reference to the Great Council of Onondaga and how the Six Nations educated their leaders. He began to contemplate a political instrument of unity for the colonies based on some of the ideas of the Iroquois Confederacy. Writing to a friend, he said: "It would be a strange thing ... if Six Nations of ignorant savages should be capable of forming a scheme for such a union, and be able to execute it in such a manner as that it has subsisted for ages and appears indissoluble; and yet, that a like union should be impracticable for ten or a dozen English colonies, to whom it is more necessary ... and who cannot be supposed to want an equal understanding of their interest".
  • The English Parliament allowed the naturalization (the rights and privileges of citizenship) of Jews in England.
  • On the General Map of North America drawn by John Rocque during the period 1754-1761, the "Apache de Navajo" were located northwest of the Moquis and astride the Colorado River.
    1754 - 1760. The French and Indian War. (The American phase of the Seven Years' War in Europe 1756-63). France joined Austria against Prussia and England. This war led to the loss of most of France's colonial empire in North America.
  • Aug 12 - It was reported that the greater part of the Navajos had abandoned the Dinetah (old Navajo country in northwestern New Mexico) " ... and taken shelter at Cebolleta, close to the pueblo and mission of Laguna, and in the mountain and vicinity of Zuñi, fleeing from the war by which the Utes seek satisfaction for the injury done to them by the Navajos, ... they assaulted some Ute ranches and robbed them of what they had. For this vile traitorous action, the Utes have so frequently made war on the Navajos and punished them that they have caused them to flee from the Province." Governor Don Tomas Velez Cachupin sought to use the occasion to persuade the Navajos to move to the abandoned missions in the Socorro region on the road to El Paso. His efforts failed as did those to reduce the Navajos to mission life.
  • Benjamin Franklin published the first cartoon in America, in the Pennsylvania Gazette, which called for unity against the French.
  • Benjamin Franklin drafted the Albany Plan, which borrowed many of the principles of the Iroquois Confederacy. It principles of individual autonomy of the colonies except in issues of trade and foreign relations which affected all, formed the basis of the Articles of Confederation of 1777, which Franklin also helped to draft, and which in turned formed the basis for the U.S. Constitution in 1789.
  • The Deblois brothers in America built the first public structure with a special room for musical performances, called the "Concert Hall" or "Music Hall".
  • Columbia University was founded in New York City.
  • While Bishop Pedro Tamarony Romeral from Durango, Mexico, " ... was in Laguna, a group of Apache Navajo Indians arrived, saying that they wished to become Christians ... they went off to seek the protection of the Spaniards so that their enemies, the Utes, might not finish them off." The Bishop also noted: "On one side of this road, to the north, is the place of the Cebolletas, where Father Menchero founded the two pueblos ... (Encinal and Cebolleta). The inhabitants are Navajos and Apaches, and many of them live in these canadas. Some are heathens, and other apostates. Some of their huts were seen."
  • Population in the colonies was estimated at 1.6 million.
  • New York required that all Physicians and Surgeons pass a test and be licensed to practice Medicine.
  • Benjamin West, American Painter, who later emigrated to England, went to Italy to study.
  • British captured Montreal and Detroit. French Governor of Canada surrendered the entire province to the British and marked the end of French domination in North America.
  • George III became King of Great Britain and Ireland. For the last two decades of his life, he was frequently insane from a hereditary illness.
  • "A petition dated 1761 ... for a grant in the Rio Puerco valley, recites the western boundary asked as 'la sierra alta donde siembran los Apaches Nabajoses' (the high sierra where the Navajo-Apaches plant) - Cebolleta Mountains." It was also reported in 1761 that with proper zeal the Navajos at Cebolleta could be reduced, or converted to Christianity.
  • Benjamin Franklin invented a musical percussion instrument played by tapping tuned glasses. Called the glassychord, later the harmonica, it bears no resemblance to the mouth organ.
  • "Springfield Mountain", the earliest recorded American folk ballad, is sung in New England..
  • Afghans defeated the Mahrattas (Hindu warriors) at Panipat in northwestern India.
  • At the age of 5, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian Composer, began writing minuets.
  • Aug 3 - It was reported by Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco that when Antonio Baca was placed in possession of a land grant in the Mt. Taylor area on August 3, 1762, that the adjoining settlers said they would not be injured by the proposed boundaries, nor would the peaceful Navajo Indians.
  • By the Treaty of Fontainebleau, France secretly ceded some of the Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi to Spain, to keep it from falling under British control.
  • British laid seige to Havana and claimed conquest of Cuba.
  • Peter III became Czar and took Russia out of the Seven Years' War. He concluded alliance with Frederick II of Prussia. Peter was murdered, and his wife became Czarina of Russia as Catherine II (the Great).
  • Mozart went on his first concert tour at age 6.
  • New Mexico's new Governor Bernardo de Galvez inaugurated a policy of treaties and trade with the Navajos and Apaches.
  • June 16 - The Indians of the Pueblos of Zia, Santa Ana, and Jemez, petitioned for a grant confirming their rights to the valley of the Ojo del Espiritu Santo. As their northern boundary they claimed " ... a place called La Ventana where some Navajo Apache live." Another tract of land one league square granted to Miguel and Santiago Montoya in the upper Rio Puerco Valley was measured " ... in order not to impinge upon fields that are generally planted by the Navajo Apaches, ... "
  • Dec 3 - Governor Don Tomas Velez Cachupin wrote regarding the Felipe Tafoya land grant north of Mt. Taylor: "If these parties have not had any land or grant whereon to pasture their animals, they might have joined the new settlements of San Miguel de Laredo and that of San Gabriel de las Nutrias ... But these parties doubtless experienced fear, as the said places were on the frontier and as they lacked courage for their establishment, and they have registered the tract they mention because it is in the peaceful region of the Navajo country. They may occupy the same while the natives (Navajos) do not object ... They were enjoined to treat these 'Apache Navajos' with the greatest love and kindness, to win them over and treat them well, so as to keep them in amity with us, and so that in the course of time, and showing them good examples and Christina conduct, they may be brought to the holy Catholic faith ... " Of the Navajos in this region it was stated that " ... they mostly make their huts, owing to their dread of the Utes, distant and on the highest and roughest parts of the mesas."
  • Chief Pontiac's rebellion in the Old Northwest ends. He organized a pan-Indian alliance against the new British rules. Although the French had surrendered, the Indians had not. The rebellion lasted from 1763 to 1766, ending when his armies ran out of guns and ammunition. One by one, individual tribes made peace with the English.
  • Ponteach, or The Savages of America, was written by Major Robert Rogers. It was the first play on an American subject, the American Indian.
  • Mason-Dixon Line marked the boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland.
  • Riding a Stagecoach between New York City and Philadelphia was advertised as a "flying machine, a good stagewagon set on springs". Trips took two days (in good weather).
  • St. Paul's Chapel, the oldest surviving church in Manhattan, was constructed.
  • Gloucester Fox Hunting Club, the first regular fox-hunting group, was organized in New Jersey.
  • British Parliament enacted the "Declaratory Act", stating its right to make laws for the colonies.
  • France obtained the duchies of Bar and Lorraine.
  • Catherine II of Russia interfered in the affairs of Poland, where one of her favorites, Stanislaus II, had been put on the throne in 1764.
  • Ottoman Turks conceded some self-rule to the Mamelukes (warrior caste) in Egypt.
  • Horace-Benedict de Saussure, Swiss Geologist and Physicist, invented the Electrometer.
  • Haller published his 8-volume Physiological Elements of the Human Body, a milestone of Medicine.
  • July 4 - When the act of possession of a land grant in the Mt. Taylor area was carried out on July 4, 1767, " ... with summons to the Navajo Apaches, who adjoin the said tract of Nuestra Senora del Pilar on the West, ... the grantees felt no sense of intrusion into forbidden territory."
  • Sept 11 - Governor Pedro Fermin de Mendinueta (1767-1778) approved the petition for the Bartolome Fernandez de la Pedrera land grant including San Miguel Spring north of Mt. Taylor provided no injury was done to the interest of a third party, " ... and especially to the unchristianized Indians, of the province of Navajo , not only those accustomed to live at San Miguel Spring but all the others who should be treated with kindness and Christian policy, so as to incline them to civilization, and draw them to our holy faith, and the subjection of our sovereign." It was further stipulated that Navajos accustomed to living at San Miguel Spring would not be prevented from continuing to do so.
  • Pennsylvania offered colonist bounties of 150 dollars for every captured male Indian over 10 years old, 134 dollars for every scalp of a killed Indian, and 130 dollars for every captured woman or boy.
  • American Frontiersman and Indian Killer, Daniel Boone, made his first exploratory trip through unknown wilderness of Shawnee and Cherokee Indian homeland, starting from North Carolina going west of the Appalachian Mts. He traveled along the present-day Kentucky-West Virginia border.
  • British, allied with the Mahrattas, began war against Haidar Ali, Hindu ruler of the state of Mysore, India.
  • The Burmese invaded the Kingdom of Siam (Thailand) and destroyed the capital city of Ayutthaya.
  • Jan 20 - The land grant north of Mt. Taylor made to Ignacio Chaves et al on this date stipulated that the rights of Navajos should be respected, and " ... under the condition that they shall not dispossess those Indians, not drive them away from the land they may have in occupation ..."
  • Feb 8 - Captain Bartolome Fernandez, Chief Alcalde, placed Joaquin Mestes in possession of a tract of land north of Mt. Taylor and "The grantees were cautioned by the Governor to occassion no injury to the Apaches of the Navajo country and to treat them with love, fidelity and kindness, endeavoring earnestly to bring them to the pale of our Mother the Church and under the vassalage of our sovereign ... "
  • May 21 - Land granted Don Carlos Jose Perea de Mirabal in the Canada de los Alamos along Salado Creek north of Canoncito, New Mexico, was given with the stipulation that the rights of the Navajos who had settled there would not be disturbed.
  • Oct 6 - Miguel Tafoya, a Coyote (half breed) Indian, was sentenced to five years hard labor at Encinillas after being convicted of having knowledge of the larceny of livestock and for taking refuge among the Navajos and endeavoring to induce them to go to war against the Spaniards.
  • Dec 16 - Baltazar Baca was given a grant of land in the Encinal, New Mexico, area with the provision that the rights of " ... the pagan Apaches of the Province of Navajo" would be respected. In 1768, many Navajos were settled at Cebolleta, and near San Mateo springs.
  • The Liberty Affair in Boston. British troops had to quell a riot in Boston after they seized John Hancock's ship, Liberty, for illegal entry into the port. The colonist then refused to provide quarters to British troops in Boston.
  • The colonial Assemblies urge opposition to the Townshend Acts. The Townshend Acts required the colonies to pay import duties on tea, glass, lead, oil, paper, and painters' colors.
  • J.C. Bach performed in London, England, the first piano solo ever heard in a concert.
  • The first edition of Encyclopaedia Britanica appeared in Edinburgh.
  • Mozart, now 12 years old, composed his first operettas.
  • The Royal Academy was founded in London, England.
  • Aug 14 - Luis Jaramillo petitioned for and was granted land along the Rio Puerco and " ... on the slope of the Navajo country."
  • Nov 18 - Joseph de Urrutia's Map of this date shows the "Provincia de Navajo" surrounding the Hopi villages.
  • Shawnees captured Daniel Boone but freed him after confiscating his goods and gear. Daniel Boone opened a route from Virginia into Kentucky called the "Wilderness Road", even though it was clearly delineated as Indian lands. In defiance of the Appalachian boundary line of the Proclamation of 1763, settlers poured into the Shawnee and Cherokee Indian lands in western Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky. The Wilderness Road and Daniel Boone became part of American myth and folklore. Singer Pat Boone claims heredity from Daniel Boone.
  • San Diego de Alcala (Mission San Diego), the first in a series of 21 California missions along the coast, was founded by the Franciscan Friars. Thousands of Indians were Christianized and worked on the mission grounds and surrounding territory. All tribal ties were suppressed and any Indians attempting to escape their new christianized life and mode of work were beaten, branded, or disfigured. The Indians, or "neophytes" as they were called, were taught trades ranging from blacksmithing, candlemaking, to farming. All traditional religious practices were forbidden. Those Indians who resisted poisoned the Priests, burned churches, and engaged in uprisings. The coastal California Indian population decreased from an estimated 70,000 to less than 15,000 in 30 years. Three hundred separate Indian bands in southern California were eradicated by the Spanish mission system, and those that survived lost their tribal identity and culture to be known only as "Mission Indians".
  • The half century of peace, 1720 to 1770, was followed in the 1770s by another period of conflict when "The Navajos reasserted mastery of their territorial homeland just as earlier they had rejected the Spanish mission and the notion of village life for themselves ... " Navajos resumed their raids on New Mexico and " ... assaults on the Hopi in this period virtually forced that tribe to accept Spanish protection, after resisting Spanish overtures for nearly a century."
    1770 - Boston Massacre. First act of war between Britain and her colonies. British troops fired into a crowd gathered outside the Boston Customs House to protest British trade and quartering policies, known as the Townshend Acts and Quartering Acts. The first victim of the colonies' rebellion was Crispus Attucks, a sailor of African American, Massachusetts Indian, and Anglo extraction. British Parliament subsequently repealed the Townshend Acts, repealing the duties on paper, glass, and paint, but left the tax on tea.
  • Population in the colonies was estimated at 2.2 million.
  • Gainsborough completes "The Blue Boy", one of the world's most popular paintings.
  • March 26 - Governor Pedro Fermin de Mendinueta wrote to Viceroy Don Antonio Bucareli y Ursua that "Although on the northwest (of Santa Fe) the Utes and Navajos live, these two nations are not always peaceful ... "
  • English court ruled that a slave was free on landing in England.
  • The Inquisition was abolished in France.
  • Nov 11 - The Governor reported that " ... on the eleventh of last November they (Utes) came to make their annual exchange of skins, and at that time they informed me that they had begun the war and had one encounter with the Navajos in which they killed many individuals and captured five boys."
  • Boston Tea Party. British Parliament passed the Tea Act to save the British East India Company from bankruptcy and to reassert its right to tax the colonies. Colonists' anger to the taxation led to the Boston Tea Party, when patriots disguised as Mohawk Indians to hide their identities from the British troops, dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor as their way of protest. The colonists used Indian symbols to represent defiance and bravery while attacking and murdering the real Indian people, who were protecting their families and land.
  • June 20 - Governor Mendinueta reported on his attempts to solve the Spaniards' difficulties with the Navajos. He had encouraged the Utes to attack the Navajos while the Spaniards remained neutral.
  • Aug 18 - While the militia of the jurisdiction of Albuquerque were on campaign against the Navajos, about 100 Comanches attacked the villa of Albuquerque killing two Spaniards, three Indians, and captured four sheepherders. They also carried of a body of horses and killed 400 head of sheep.
  • Sept 30 - Governor Mendinueta reported that in two expeditions against the Navajos they had " ... killed 22 barbarians and seized 46 individuals, men, women, and children, two of whom, after being baptized, died." The Spaniards lost four killed and 31 were wounded.
  • Oct 5 - A large party of Navajos raided some ranches near Laguna Pueblo, killed four people, took two captives,and killed some sheep. The Alcalde, with a body of men, pursued the Navajos and killed two of them, but 22 of the pursuing Spaniards were wounded.
  • Nov 15 - Navajos raided in the vicinity of Zia Pueblo, killed one sheepherder, captured another, and took a quantity of cattle and sheep.
  • Navajos raided near the Pueblo of Laguna and captured one boy.
  • Dec 26 - Navajos raided the Pueblo of Laguna and stole 13 sheep. Navajo raids at this time forced the Spaniards to abandon settlements in the area of Mt. Taylor and the Rio Puerco of the East.
  • Rush described American Indian medical practices.
  • Winthrop suggests that writings found at Dighton Rock in eastern Mass. were made by ancient Indians.
  • First Continental Congress meant in Philadelphia with delegates from all the colonies except Georgia. Petitions of grievances were sent to the King of England.
  • Thomas Jefferson wrote his first important work, A Summary View of the Rights of British America, in wich he asserted that the British had no right to rule or legislate for the American colonies.
  • Ann Lee arrived from England with a group of followers called the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Coming (Shakers). She established a community at New Lebanon, N.Y.
  • British Parliament passed measures ("Intolerable Acts") to punish the Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party. Boston port was closed until payment was made for the tea destroyed. Colonists were forced to quarter British soldiers and were deprived of many chartered rights.
  • Louis XVI became King of France.
  • The Manchus suppressed rebellion in the Shantung province of China.
  • Jesuits were expelled from Poland.
  • March 30 - Governor Mendinueta reported that a force of 100 Pueblo Indians, 43 militiamen, and two squadrons of soldiers recently attacked the Navajos in their fortress atop Big Bead Mesa (Yoo'o Tsoh) in New Mexico north of Mt. Taylor, but were unable to gain ascent to the fortified mesa. After a 24 hour blockade, the Navajo Chiefs agreed to come to Zuñi with some captives recently taken in order to establish a peace.
  • April 19 - Five Navajos, with three horses that they had stolen, were captured by Indians form the Pueblos of Jemez and Cochiti.
  • May 3 - Navajos raided in the neighborhood of Santa Clara Pueblo taking some mares and horses. The Indians of the pueblo followed by were unable to overtake them.
  • June 22 - At the invitation of some Hopi Indians who came to Zuñi to trade during Lent of 1775, Fray Silvestre Velez de Escalante, accompanied by the Alcalde of Zuñi, a Hopi convert from Sandia Pueblo to act as interpreter, and 17 Zuñi Indians, set out on this date to visit the Hopi Indians. Reaching Walpi on First Mesa three days later, they were well received. Before starting for Oraibi on June 27: "At midday a Moqui Indian of Gualpi entered in hast. Through the interpreter I asked him what he wanted, and he said that he had witnessed a meeting of the Navajo Apaches who were there (they numbered over a hundred) and that after a long discussion about the motive of my visit to Moqui they had decided to attack us when we started back and to take our lives. And in order to make sure of doing it without missing the mark, several messages had already gone to all the rancherias who could assemble within four days ... " The Moqui was astounded when Escalante was unperturbed by this news. After visiting Oraibi and Second Mesa, Escalanted returned to Walpi, "On the third day of July we left Gualpi for Zuñi by a different road than the one we took when we came. Although I tried to avoid it, the captain of Gualpi sent forty armed men to find out whether some smokes that had been seen in the direction where we were going were of the Navajos who planned to kill us. I was most grateful for this action." The party reached Zuñi on July 6, without mishap. In a letter to Fray Fernando Antonio Gomez written after his return to Zuñi, Escalante wrote a brief description of the Hopis and his visit there. In October of 1775, he penned a fuller account, but it was not until April 30, 1775, that he sent a copy of the diary he had kept during his visit to Hopi to Provincial Fray Isidro Murillo.
  • Governor Mendinueta informed the authorities in Chihuahua, Mexico, that the Navajos on six recent occasions had come " ... to steal cattle and horses from the pueblos of Xemas, Sia, San Ildefonso, the district of Abiquiu, and the jurisdiction of Albuquerque." Six Navajos and one woman had been killed by the pursuing Spaniards, one wounded, some women and children made captives, and much of the stolen stock recovered. During the same month, the Catholic Priest at the Pueblo of San Juan gave ecclesiastical burial to two male adults who had been killed by Navajos.
  • Sept 22 - " ... two Navajo chiefs arrived at Laguna with two captives. In keeping with orders, the Alcalde took them to Santa Fe for talks with the Governor ... " subsequently, the Navajos released eleven more captives.
  • Jeffrey's map of 1775 shows "Apaches de Navajo" located to the northwest of the Hopi villages and northwest of Zuñi.
  • American Indians in Florida were described as playing lacrosse, using a deerskin ball and deerskin nets on sticks.
  • Patrick Henry delivered a speech against his perception of tyrannical British rule, closing with the famous statement, "Give me liberty or give me death".
  • Paul Reevere alerted colonists that British soldiers were on the way to Concord to destroy arms. Minutemen fought British at Lexington and Concord, beginning the American Revolution.
  • The Green Mountain Boys under Col. Ethan Allen captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British.
  • The Second Continental Congress meant in Philadelphia and appointed George Washington Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army.
  • The British defeated the colonial forces at the Battle of Bunker Hill.
  • "Yankee Doodle" becames popular as a rallying song with which to taunt the British.
  • The postal system was established by the Second Continental Congress, and Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first Postmaster General.
  • David Bushnell, American, invented a one-man, hand-operated submarine now known as the "American Turtle".
  • American colonies were supplying nearly 15% of the world's iron.
  • The first abolition society, the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage, was organized in Philadelphia by Franklin and Benjamin Rush, Physician and political leader.
  • Pierre Augustin Beaumarchais, French Dramatist, wrote The Barber of Seville, a comedy.
  • Jan 13 - A Navajo girl, purchased from her parents by one Don Jose of Santa Fe, was baptized at Zuñi. The girl's parents "spontaneously sold her." In the same year four Navajos were baptized at Laguna, two at Isleta, another at Zuñi, and one at Sandia Pueblo.
  • June 26 - Traveling from Havasupai to Hopi, Fray Francisco Garces reported that the way was "very hazardous," because of the war the Havasupais waged with the Navajos and the Yavapais, their traditional enemies. Father Garces later wrote: " All those whom I designate by the name of Yabipais are in reality Apaches. Also have they a great refuge and dispatch for the horse-herds they steal, in Moqui; for, I have said, those of the Pueblo de Oraibe have friendship with the Yabipais Nabajay (Navajos), who are those who infest these lands ... "
  • Aug 5 - After leaving Santa Fe July 29, Fray Francisco Silvestre Velez de Escalante, Fray Francisco Atanasio Dominquez, and their party arrived at the Rio de Navajo on this date. On this river, the San Juan, Father Escalante wrote: "The stream is called Rio Grande de Navajo because it separates the province of this name from the Yuta nation." The party of missionaries crossed the San Juan near the junction of that river with the Piedra. Utes were located on the Rio Dolores.
  • Oct 12 - From Zuñi, Fray Andres Garcia reported " ... that the Apache (Navajos) near there assured him the western Apaches were returning with all their families and horses to the neighborhood of Zuñi to seek peace, fleeing the Spanish arms and fearful of the continuous pressure of the troops."
  • Nov 10 - The Escalante-Dominguez party " ... camped at the beginnning of the descent, where a stairway of logs, built and used by the Navajo Indians, leads down to the Canyon ... " of the Colorado River upstream from the mouth of Navajo Creek. The next day, November 11, the descent in to the canyon was made " ... with great difficulty because in some places the trail led down dangerous cliffs.
  • Nov 17 - Traveling east after visiting the Havasupai Indians, Fray Escalante and his group arrived at the Hopi villages. There they communicated with the Hopis both at Oraibi and at Second Mesa in the Navajo language, an indication at this early date that the Navajos and Hopis had had sufficiently long contacts fo the Hopis to have learned to speak Navajo.
  • Nov 25 - Fray Dominquez reported that "The Navajos and Yutas have killed, captured, and robbed the Moquis, and they are now at war with them."
  • Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. The Pennsylvania Evening Post devoted its entire front page and part of the 2nd page to the text of the Declaration of Independence.
  • British hanged (without a trial) Nathan Hale as a spy.
  • British defeated a small colonial fleet under Benedict Arnold on Lake Champlain.
  • Thomas Paine's Common Sense was published and sold more than 100,000 copies in 3 months. It urged the end of the union with England.
  • Edward Gibbon, English Historian, published the first volume of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
  • Nov 3 - Governor Mendinueta reported to Comandante General Teodoro de Croix that "To the west of the cited pueblo (Socorro) between those of Acoma, Laguna and Zuñi ... an open door remains. Through it the Apaches enter continuously to rob and kill as far as the center of this province. Through it also they have a clear and pernicious communication with the Navajo nation with whom the Apache nation made a close alliance in the last war it had with us. This nation, although small, possesses a very rugged land to the west of this government (New Mexico) in a recess which the three pueblos referred to, Acoma, Laguna, and Zuñi, form ... each day sees the Navajo nation becoming more suspicious of ourselves and I consider them (not without reason) as a hidden enemy." Govenor Mendinueta recommended that a Presidio of 50 men be established at the site of Socorro, one purpose being to separate the Gila Apaches from the Navajos.
  • Congress specified the design of the U.S. Flag: "thirteen strips alternate red and white ... thirteen stars of white on a blue field".
  • British forces under Gen. Howe defeated Washington's forces at Brandywine and Germantown, Pa. British controlled Philadelphia. Washington setted up winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pa.
  • Congress adopted Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
  • The New Testament of the Bible was published in English for the first time in America.
  • Aug 4 - Governor de Anza wrote the Comandante General that the drought of the past two years had produced such conditions of hunger and pestilence among the Hopis, " ... their calamities reaching such an exteme that they have sold or are selling their children to procure sustenance ... " Many Hopis sought refuge among the Havasupais; others were willing to submit to being Christianized to sustain themselves. De Anza wrote further: " ... I have well founded information that when many (Hopi) families leave their pueblos they do it for the honest purpose of coming to give themselves up to us. This fortunate overture the Navajo Apache nation obstructs, intimating to them that we would not receive them ... "
  • Under Thomas Jefferson, Statesman and Author, William and Mary College, created schools of Medicine, Law, and Modern Languages. The system allowed students to choose courses was introduced.
  • Spain declared war on Great Britain.
  • British fought the Mahrattas in India.
  • Hokusai, Japanese Artist, of the Ukiyo-e school, published his first color prints.
  • May 26 - Governor de Anza wrote the Comandante-General regarding the Hopis that " ... It is certain that these (the calamities of hunger and pestilence) are great and will continue increasingly. The reports assure me that this (Hopi) province may be almost depopulated. It is the one also which in general rebels against submitting to us ... " In February of 1880, de Anza had despatched Fray Andres Garcia from Zuñi to Hopi, and March 20, he brought to Santa Fe 75 Hopis. De Anza placed them in various of the Rio Grande Pueblos, charging the residents with their maintenance. By May, the number had increased to 150 " ... in which are included 20 to 25 dead," all of whom had adopted Christianity and been baptized. De Anza wrote further: "We could have regained a larger number of the above mentioned if we had not met the Navajo nation, established on the road half way between here and Moqui. Because the latter had murdered and made prisoners of two parties of these unhappy Moqui seeking our aid, leaving others disposed to do the same, the Navajo have intimidated them so that they have suspended and blocked the movement of the second (group) with others, who it was consequent, should have followed their example. Because of this and of various robberies, though small ones, I have demanded that this nation (the Navajo) observe the capitulations under which peace was granted to them. What happened was that the nation excused their bad conduct with insubstantial pretexts. I learn it is not reformed so that I intend to strike terror among them and their allies, the gila, ... "
  • May - Navajos entered he various districts of the province and drove off 30 horses and a greater number of sheep.
  • July - Navajos continued their hostilities by raiding Acoma, stealing six horses from that Pueblo. They also killed three Indians from Zuñi and Pecos during July of 1780.
  • Sept 20 - Pestilence and famine due to crop failures caused may Hopis to seek food and refuge among the Navajos. The Spaniards believed this to be a propitious time for their conversion, and also feared that unless helped, all the Hopis might join the hostile Navajos. So Governor de Anza, after receiving a message that 40 Hopi familes would migrate to the Rio Grande if he would come in person to bring them, arrived at Hopi Sept 20 to find that "The forty families had been forced by hunger fifteen days ago to go to the Navajo country, where the men had been killed and the women and children seized," only two having escaped to recount the disaster. The Hopis were finally reduced from a population of 7494 in 1775 to only 798 in 1780, with only 300 sheep, five horses,and no cattle. De Anza added that "These causes which have contributed to the extermination of these pueblos or provinces, all its native agree, have been hunger and pestilence, the first because it has not rained since the year (17)77,and from that has resulted the second. To this may be added the war which the Utes and Navajos make upon them cruely ... I offered to mediate with their enemies, the Utes and Navajos, that they might permit them to live in peace ... " Many of the more than 200 Hopis who finally migrated to the Rio Grande died from the smallpox plague during the winter of 1780-81. From December 11, 1780. to March 10, 1781, 70 Hopis were buried by Catholic Priests, 55 at Sandia, and 15 at Santa Clara.
  • From Chihuahua, Mexico, Cavallero de Croix, Comandante General, ordered the Governor of New Mexico to make payment of 100 pesos for the head of every Indian of every Indian and a smiliar sum for captives taken.
  • U.S. population was estimated at 2.7 million.
  • Benedict Arnold's plot to surrender West Point to the British was discovered through the capture of a British spy. Arnold fled and joined the British with whom he campaigned.
  • The Philadelphia Humane Society was established to teach first aid (reviving drowning victims). Benjamin Franklin proposed mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
  • Protestants marched on British Parliament to present a petition against Catholic Relief Act of 1778. Riots ensued with many deaths. The Catholic population of England was 70,000.
  • The bolero, a lively Spanish dance, was invented by Sebastian Cerezo.
  • Samuel Williams, American, observed eclipse, and gave the first description of droplets of sunlight along the moon's edge during the eclipse.
  • d'Alembert published the eighth of the 8-volume Opuscubs Mathematiques, a cornerstone of modern Calculus.
  • Steel pens are first used in England.
  • Jan 17 - De Anza wrote that the Navajo Apaches, who are the Hopis' " ... nearest neighbors, are being increased by additions from these Moqui. The former having been our declared enemies, it is to be presumed that they would aspire to be so again,... The Navajo Indian tribe, as much by warlike acts and by the other deeds of violence which I have described, have possessed themselves of many of the Moqui. In this matter, I am persuaded that a larger number is included among them than appears to us, because the Navajo are continuing their bad conduct ... "
  • Nov 15 - De Anza proclaimed in a letter to Croix the inevitable extermination of the Hopis " ... by the ravages of the epidemic of smallpox and of the war which the Utes and Navajos make upon them." De Anza's remarks were reiterated by de Croix in a letter to Jose de Galvez April 23, 1782. Burial records of the Catholic Church in Santa Fe reflect the severeness of the smallpox epidemic.
  • French fleet defeated British naval force at Hampton Roads and blockaded the Chesapeake Bay. Revolutionary troops surrounded the British at Yorktown, VA. Gen. Charles Cornwallis surrendered to Washington, ending hostitilies of the American Revolution.
  • Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union are ratified. Congress charters Bank of North America.
  • A French traveler to Annapolist, Md., reported on its splendor. Fine women, elegant horses, coaches, sumptuous dinners and balls are described. He noted that "A French hairdresser is a man of importance ..., and it is said, a certain dame here hires one ... at a thousand crowns a year salary".
  • William Herschel, English Astronomer, discovered the planet Uranus.
  • In his geographical description of New Mexico, Fray Agustin de Orfi wrote of Cebolleta: "A short distance from Laguna is the place called Cebolleta at the foot of the sierra of the same name from which a small river rises. Two and a half leagues before it reaches Laguna it joins the water of El Gallo. In this place the Indians of Laguna and more recently the Navajo Apache have been accustomed to plant; at present, according to reports by Jose de la Pena, the latter occupy the place." Of Encinal, Morfi wrote: "Close to Cuvero, in a southern direction and at three leagues from Lagun is the spot called El Encinal, where there was a ranch of Spaniards. Today the Navajo Indians cultivate the land. It is a canyon where there is a sufficiency of lands and waters with all other necessities to maintain comfortably as many as forty families ... "
  • Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay, negotiated peace treaty with British in Paris.
  • Great Seal of the United States was adopted.
  • British troops evacuated Savannah, Ga., and Charleston, S.C.
  • Use of the scarlet letter for adulterers in New England was discontinued.
  • Harvard Medical School opened.
  • First Catholic parochial school was founded by St. Mary's Catholic Church in Philadelphia.
  • Holland recognized U.S. independence.
  • Watt patented an engine in which the pistons both push and pull.
  • Mozart composed The Abduction from the Seraglio, an opera, and Symphony in D Major (Haffner Symphony).
  • Jan 9 - Navajos raided the Queres (Keres) Pueblos along the Rio Grande and stole nine head of stock which were later recovered by the pursing Indians.
  • Mar 2 - Navajos raided the region of Abiquiu, New Mexico, but " ... their thefts were recovered by the residents who promptly pursued them,"
  • March 15 - Governor de Anza learned " ... from a Navajo that the Navajos of Encinal, Cebolleta, and San Mateo, New Mexico, had set out to join the Gila Apaches in order to attack the presidios at Janos ... " in Chihuahua, Mexico. On various occasions the Gila Apaches sought alliance and reinforcements among the Navajos, returning to the southern frontier to storm the Presidios of Tucson, Janos, or Arispe, in Mexico. " ... the Navajos were seen sometimes in a force which numbered five hundred warriors ... " Antonio el Pinto was one of the Navajo Chiefs purportedly involved. At this time there existed an alliance between the Navajos and the Gila Apaches much to the chagrin of the Spaniards.
  • June 7 - With their allies, the Gila Apaches, Navajos raided settlemens along the Rio Grande valley taking eleven head of stock.
  • Sept 9 - In a raid upon Jemez and Zia Pueblos, Navajos drove off 55 head of stock belonging to the Indians.
  • Dec 18 - Governor de Anza was ordered this date, and again on January 14, 1784, to accomplish this breaking of the Navajo-Gila Apache alliance by all means possible. De Anza was directed further to warn the Navajos that if they " ... continued violating the good faith with which they are countenanced in that province, not only would they be denied the protection which was dispensed them, but that they would be persecuted at the same time until they were destroyed and driven out of the country which they occupy. From this would follow the loss of their possessions and they would see themselves reduced to live in the hills a poor and wandering life which the Gilas and the rest of the enemies of this province lead ... " De Anza was instructed to exhibit the troops of Santa Fe to the Navajos and to advise them that " ... the Utes whom the Navajo have offended would not deny their arms to the common vengeance; and that they could avoid this, if recognizing their error at once, they would break with and declare war upon the Gilas, waging it incessantly and proving to the Spaniards by this act that they would prefer their friendship to the sterile and ruinous alliance with those barbarians (the Gila Apaches). I concluded, commanding the Governor that if the Navajos did not yield docilely to his instructions and comply with everything proposed to them, he should proceed against them with all the forces of his province, ... "
  • Treaty of Paris between Britain and the U.S. ended American Revolution. Britain recognized U.S. independence.
  • British evacuated New York City. Continental Army was disbanded. Washington resigned as Commander-in-Chief.
  • U.S. independence recognized by Sweden, Denmark, Spain, and Russia.
  • Population in the U.S. was estimated at 2.4 million. Decrease was due mainly to war deaths and the departure of Loyalist during the Revolutionary War.
  • Lexicographer, Noah Webster, published The American Spelling Book, popularly called "Blue-Backed Speller". It is the first part of A Grammatical Institute of the English Language, the other parts being a grammar (1784) and a read (1785). The work helped standardized spelling of American English.
  • Beethoven's first compositions were published.
  • It took Thomas Jefferson five days to travel by public transportation from Philadelphia to Baltimore, Md., a distance of 90 miles.
  • The first hot-air balloon was launched by Joseph Montgolfier and his brother Jacques.
  • Civil marriage and divorce were established in the Austrian Empire.
  • Buell, American, makes first map of the United States.
  • Enrollment at Yale was 270 students.
  • Jan 14 - De Anza was advised by higher authorities in Arispe, Mexico, to remove the burdens upon the Utes' commerce, and win them over to the Spaniards, as they might prove useful allies of the Spaniards against the Navajos. In the spring of 1784, it was reported that the Navajos and Gilenos made frequent invasions into the Rio Abajo or lower Rio Grande.
  • October - "The Alcalde Mayor of Laguna led an expedition into the Gila country in October, 1784, and penetrated as far as the headwaters of the Rio San Francisco. A few Navajos accompanied him, but he suspected that others had warned their kinsmen of his approach."
  • Congress adopted Thomas Jefferson's plan for governing western lands.
  • North Carolina ceded its western lands to the U.S. The state of Franklin (present-day east Tennessee) existed until 1888, when settlers accepted renewed jurisdiction of North Carolina.
  • Congress, with no power of taxation under the Articles of Confederation, was unable to raise needed revenue.
  • Benjamin Franklin invented bifocal eyeglasses.
  • Andrew Ellicot surveyed and extended the Mason-Dixon Line.
  • First school for the blind was started in Paris.
  • In England, stagecoaches are used for the first time to transport mail.
  • K'un ch'ii, a style of Chinese music devised in the 16th century, reached it height with a performance for the emperor.
  • March - " ... Navajos raided the Albuquerque district. They killed two persons, stole 27 horses and killed 12 others. Pursuit followed and three horses were recovered at Los Quelites."
  • June 5 - In striving to break the Navajo-Gila Apache alliance, Governor de Anza forbade Navajos to pass south of the Rio San Jose. Any who hould were to be seized by his patrol of 40 men, brought to Santa Fe, and punished. He also banned all trade, exchange and communication between the inhabitantsof the province and the Navajos. "As a result of this action, 46 Navajos, among them seven of their chiefs, presented themselves on June 5 to the Alcalde Mayor of La Laguna, indicating that they had determined to set out on the 12th on a campaign against the Gilas. For this purpose they asked him to aid them with 80 of our Indians. Their request ... acceded to, they set out on the 16th, numbering 120 horse, 30 foot, and 94 Indians from the pueblo who sent to reinforce their detachment and witness their operations ... " They had two engagements, killed more than 40 Apaches, suffered the loss of two men and ten horses, and returned to Laguna on June 25. De Anza ordered them rewarded by reopening commerce and communications with the pueblos of the province which he had before closed to the Navajos.
  • June 25 - It was reported that after June 25, 1785, " ... the Navajos made two more campaigns (against the Gila Apaches) and sent 14 leaders to Santa Fe, ... One, the very famous Antonio (el Pinto), had been the mainspring of the Navajos reluctance to declare war upon the Gilas. But he now sought the Governor's pardon and promised future devotion, and on the next expediton against the Gilas, to be made in August, to assist with as many Navajos as possible." To recompense Antonio el Pinto and his volunteers, de Anza agreed to furnish " ... each one of the auxiliaries who presented himself an almud (about 6 bushels) of pinole, mounts to carry them, and two head of cattle for the total of them, because Antonio had indicated to him (de Anza) that without this aid they could not subsist the length of time required on our expeditions ... " De Anza requested of the Comandante General Jose Antonio Rengel " ... that four canes with silver points be sent him with an equal number of medals as insignia ... " for Antonio el Pinto and the other three chiefs who had accompanied hiim to Santa Fe.
  • June - In one of the campaigns carried out under the command of 2d Lieut. Don Jose Maldonado, no more than 31 Navajos accompanied him and only for a period of ten days, returning to their rancherias from the Sierra Azul. Navajos, accompanied by some Ute Indians, made a second foray against the Gilenos in August.
  • July 15 & 17 - Fourteen Navajos, including four captains, came to see Governor de Anza and offered to continue making war on the Gila Apaches. On July 27, a captain and six Navajo warriors from the rancheria of Guadalupe north of Mt. Taylor made the same offer.
  • It was reported to de Anza that " ... although these Indians (Navajos) know well the advantage of having us (Spaniards) as friends and the ruin which would come to them by obliging us to declare war upon them, this does not yet save from them fear of the Gilas and the repugnance they feel in sacrificing to our friendship the ancient ties of kinship and alliance which they have maintained with them. In this opinion, Captain Antonio (el Pinto) fortifies and assures them because he is the one who has been most opposed to the Spaniards and has made himself respected among the others because of his great riches, and large number of relatives and partisans ... " De Anza was instructed to continue his efforts to dissolve the Navajo-Gila Apache alliance, and to aid him the Comandante General stated that he was sending " ... a number of horses and mules ... and 200 firearms with corresponding munitions for the equipment of the militia, settlers and Navajos who attend the campaigns ... " He further advised de Anza to insure the friendship of the Utes " ... so that by no means may they permit the said enemies (Navajos) to approach or take refuge in their territories ... "
  • The custom of "bundling" became accepted. Unmarried couples who were going steady, would lie in bed together fully clothed in order to keep warm or get to know each other better.
  • Russians settled in the Aleutian Islands.
  • U.S. and Spain argued over navigation rights on the Mississippi River and the boundaries of Florida (returned to Spain by Britain in 1783).
  • John Greenwood, George Washington's Dentist, began using porcelain for false teeth.
  • Catherine II of Russia issued charter to the nobles, freeing them from taxation and giving them absolute control of their lands and peasants.
  • Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, French Physicist, established the relationship between electric charges (Coulomb's Law).
  • Jean Pierre Blanchard and John Jeffries crossed the English Channel in a balloon from England to France.
  • Jan 18 - Comandante General Rengel in Chihuahua, Mexico, directed de Anza to establish a strong Spanish command at Laguna Pueblo as a threat to the Navajos should they not continue their alliance with the Spaniards and their campaign against the Gila Apaches. To effect the alliance, the Spaniards had threatened to use Comanches against the Navajos. Rengel concluded his communication to de Anza: " ... It being extremely important that I may have frequent news of the state of progress of everything, your lordship shall arrange that the detachments of the campaign bring and leave your advices in the Pueblo of El Paso as they did in the past year, or better in some one of the presidios of the frontier of Sonora, if it is possible for them to penetrate as far as that frontier, guided by the Navajos ... "
  • Feb 4 - Regarding the breaking of the Navajo-Gila Apache alliance, it was reported that " .. the Navajos are not entirely resolved to break with the Gilas, although they do not refuse it, knowing our friendship is more useful to their interests than that of the latter; but they might wish to enjoy the one without losing the other. This being incompatible with out principles, it is necessary that they decide ... the irresolution of the Navajos is more from being accustomed to the trade of our enemies, with whom they have old contacts of kinship; and because their close situation makes it hard for them to violate these relationships."
  • March 2 - It was reported that Navajos recently raided the Abiquiu, New Mexico, region but were pursued by the Spaniards who killed one Navajo and recovered 23 horses which the Navajos had taken.
  • March 22 - De Anza arranged a meeting with Navajos at the crossing of the Rio Puerco of the East southwest of Zia Pueblo relative to breaking the Navajo-Gila Apache alliance. On the appointed day only the Alcaldes of Laguna, Zuñi, and Jemez and one Navajo met with the Governor. Navajos kept away because of a rumor that the real purpose of the meeting stemmed from an order to exterminate them. The lone Navajo promised to return in two or three days with this people. True to his word, about 80 Navajos came with him.
  • March 25 - After Governor de Anza had persuaded the Navajos to abandon their alliance with the Gila Apaches, by tact, patience, and embargoing trade with them he finally obtained their assistance against the Gilas, and a treaty was made between the Spaniards and the Navajos. At the meeting on the Rio Puerco, the Navajos agreed " ... that to bring about the declaration of war against the Gilas one of the chiefs named with only Navajos and the interpreter should set out on campaign at the will of the Governor ... " Navajos also agreed to furnish a monthly contingent of 30 fighters for action against the Gilas. " ... Navajos pledged a campaign in July ... " De Anza also persuaded the Navajos to accept the authority of a head Chief, one Don Carlos, and a lieutenant Chief, Don Jose Antonio, and an interpreter was also placed among them, principally to act as a spy. "Just as these ceremonies were ending a Comanche warrior (one of two de Anza had brought with him) stepped into the circle of the council, and exhorted the Navajos to fulfill their agreements or the Comanches as Spanish allies would exterminate them. Terrified by his representative of their dreaded enemy, the Navajos swore fidelity ... "
  • May 25 - The interpreter de Anza had assigned to the Navajos informed the Governor that when a party of Gila Apaches stole a Navajo horseherd from Encinal, the Navajos pursued the Apaches as far as the Zuñi Salt Lake, but to no avail, and that " ... the Navajos were now back in their old lands preparing the soil, and finally that they were gathering in all who had mounts for the campaign; ... " including the rancheria of the Utes among them under the command of Captain Peecha ... " The interpreter reported further that a Gila Apache " ... who presented himself at the rancheria of Encinal with the same accustomed confidence as before, they strangled at once."
  • June 8 - Navajo "General" Don Carlos and his Lt. Don Jose Antonio, the interpreter, and seven others arrived in Santa Fe. Don Carlos reported that " ... he had visited all the rancherias of his dependency, where he was received and recognized with universal applause; ... " The interpreter who had been placed among the Navajos by de Anza reported that the tribe consisted of 700 families of four or five persons each and that there were five divisions, San Mateo, Cebolleta, Canon, Chuska, and de Chelly; that there were 1000 warriors possessed of 500 horses, and Navajo possessions also consisted of 600 mares with young, 700 black ewes, and forty cows with bulls and calves. Don Carlos lamented a recent epidemic which he attributed to lack of trade with New Mexico which the Governor had closed to them. He also reported that Antonio el Pinto had been deposed as Chief of the Navajos " ... because of certain suspicions" that he had given the Navajos of his restlessness and infidelity. De Anza invited the Navajo nation to the Comanche Fair to be held in July or August where they might display their woven goods.
  • June 28 - On this date it was recorded that Navajos in the vicinity of Paraje de la Cebolla and the Gila Apaches were "reportedly conniving; ... "
  • July - When Ensign Don Salvador Rivera set for in July from El Paso to scour the mountains northward towards Socorro for Apaches, his command consisted of 26 Navajos, 37 presidials, 19 militiamen, 60 Pueblo Indians, and 22 Comanches.
  • July 29 - Navajos, accompanied by Captain Chiquito, who frequently led raiding parties into Sonora,and who had been trying to restore the alliance between the Navajos and the Gilas, was killed. A second attack on Arispe was anticipated, and it was believed that the Navajo leader, Antonio el Pinto, was involved.
  • Don Jacobo Ugarte de Loyola, Comandante General, wrote to de Anza: " ... I have observed with satisfaction that you have already triumphed, not only completing the rupture of the old link which bound the Navajo Indians to the Gilas to attack us, but also succeeding in moving the former to make war on them, ... " The Comandante General authorized a payment of 200 pesos annually to "General" Don Carlos, Navajo Chief " ... elected with the consent of all the nation ... " and approved by Governor de Anza, and of 100 pesos annually to his Navajo Lieutenant, Don Jose Antonio, to secure their fidelity to the Spaniards and their continued break of alliance with the Gila Apaches. Ugarte also proposed that the Navajos " ... organize themselves into formal settlements or Pueblos and devote themselves to cultivating the soil in order to induce them to abandon their wandering way of life." Regarding the Navajo Chief, Antonio el Pinto, Ugarte wrote de Anza: "If previous facts justify this concept, your lordship will search for the most secure and prudent means of destroying this individual or exiling him from his country without which the complete pacification of this (Navajo) nation will never be secured." Another means of identifying Navajo Indians with Spanish interests and insuring their fidelity was by mating. "Accordingly Ugarte charged Anza to miss no opportunity to baptize particularly the daughters of the principal men so that they could marry. He also urged that Christian Indians go frequently to the Navajo rancherias to trade and impress them with the advantages of the safeguards surrounding such conjugals and those arising from selecting a place of residence in New Mexico itself." The dissolution of the Navajo-Gila aliance now seemed to have become a reality, and the peace stablished with the Navajos at this time endured for two decades more.
  • Britain told U.S., it would not evacuate Great Lakes region until the U.S. debts to Britain were paid.
  • Barbary pirates raided U.S. ships in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Debt ridden farmers in western Massachusetts, led by Daniel Shays, revolted agtainst the state government, protesting high taxes, shortage of money, and insistent creditors. Shays's Rebellion was crushed.
  • Lans Deo!, a collection of sacred music for schools, was published in Worcester, Mass. It was the first American book printed with movable type (all previous books were engraved).
  • C.W. Peale opened exhibition gallery near his Philadelphia studio. It is considered the first art gallery in the U.S.
  • First ice cream was made commercially in New York City.
  • Pennsylvania Hospital opened an outpatient dispensary, a forerunner of Free Clinics.
  • Mozart composed Symphony in D (Prague Symphony) and The Marriage of Figaro, the first of his great operas.
  • Mt. Blanc in the Alps was climbed for the first time.
  • September - A number of Navajos accompanied a Spanish expedition against the Gila Apaches. Other Navajos made a raid on Abiquiu.
  • October - A small party of Navajos raided the Rio Abajo. Also, Antonio el Pinto and some of his tribesmen went to Isleta to trade. " ... He was seized by the Alcalde and taken to Santa Fe, where he was held pending orders from the Commanding General of the Provincias Internas. The head chief of the Navajo, as well as many others of the tribe, hastened to Santa Fe to plead with the Governor, Fernando de la Concha, for his release ... ". In April of 1788, Antonio was freed, for Governor Concha had become convinced of his innocence and of his value as a friend and ally to the Spanish cause. The old Navajo headman had been imprisoned twice under the same charge.
  • December - The Navajos engaged in two skirmishes with the Gila Apaches. They invaded Gila territory and seized 49 horses. The Apaches later attacked the Navajos and captured nine horses, suffering the loss of one of their captains.
  • John Fitch, American, launched the first American steamboat on the Delaware River.
  • Congress called for Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. Delegates drafted and signed the Constitution of the United States, which was sent to the states for ratification (approval). Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey ratify it.
  • James Rumsey invented a "jet-propelled" steamboat which shot a stream of water through the stern (rear).
  • First American cotton mill opened in Beverly, Mass.
  • Mozart composed the opera, Don Giovanni.
  • French Author, Marquis de Sade, imprisoned for numerous crimes, wrote The Adversity of Virtue, a book that established him as the first modern écrivain maudit (damned writer). He was later (1803) committed to an insane asylum where he convinced the other inmates to be actors in his plays.
  • China suppressed a revolt in Formosa.
  • Jan 14 - Governor Don Fernando de la Concha, who succeeded de Anza, was advised from Arispe, Mexico, by Ugarte: "Gerónimo Peralta, a native Indian of the jurisdiction of Albuquerque, now being a prisoner in the Villa for reasons presented to me by your Excellency's predecessor, Don Juan Bautista de Anza, ... it would seem advisable to send him out of the province, in order to prevent him from returning to the Navajos, among whom, living as a fugitive for a long time, he retarded them from subjugation ... if you agree to the expatriation of the said Peralta, you can send him at your first opportunity to the Villa of Chihuahua and entrust him to me; using similar procedure with all individuals who may sow pernicious discord, capable of altering the confidence and good faith of our allies, the pagan Indians".
  • Jan 23 - Comandante-General Ugarte advised Governor Concha of the adoption of a new policy for the Provincias Internas. Apache captives henceforth were to be deported in chains to Mexico. Whether any Navajos fell victim to this fate was not recorded.
  • April 12 - After Antonio el Pinto was released from imprisonment on April 4, 1788, Governor Concha ordered Vizente Troncoso, one of his officers, and an escort of four soldiers, to accompany the well-known Chief to his ranchería and to verify his arrival there. On his return Troncoso made a lengthy report to the Governor on his observations of the customs and behavior of the Navajos. He wrote: "... we soon arrived at the houses which, five in number, are situated on a plain that is formed in the slope of the mountain (the San Mateo Mountains west of the Rio Puerco), so that it is necessary to climb by a very steep hill. As soon as reached the top Antonio's parents and brothers (and sisters?) came out to receive me ... He (Antonio) had them bring in his stock, killed the largest sheep and offered as much as I and the soldiers might want. All the rest of the morning all the headmen and residents of the nearby rancherías of Guadalupe and Cebolleta were gathering to visit me, ... I had noticed with pleasure that not even the Christian natives of our Pueblos succeeded so well in imitating in everything the customs, clothing, foods and undertakings of the Spaniards. First they resemble (us) in having some idea of religion, having previously and at present some Christians, although apostates, among them, who have given them very ancient reports of the Universal Flood and others that many Spaniards of this Province lack. They scrupulously keep the loyalty of their marriages, they conscientiously repay all debts they contract. They endow their women with more than they ought. These they do not marry until the age of 18 or 20 years, guarding the maidens with such decorum, that if one by misfortune should slip, to the point that she has abandoned all her obligations, she is viewed with the greatest scorn. As for clothing, all wear pants, ... shoes, and shirts and many have jackets (?), captes and hats. The women ... none, even those of the Pueblos, are more adorned and decorated with coral, small glass beads, glass beads and shell like these; they take particular care in combing their hair daily which many have abundantly, ... at the end in a knot or roll of hair, molote as it is called, formed over a cloth of cochineal or scarlet. Their dress is of two blankets of black wool with a colored ... border and they arrange it in the form of a blouse and skirt, only the arms remaining bare. Their diet consists of mutton, milk, corn, chili, and other vegetables which they season moderately and with great cleanliness. The women grind flour of corn and wheat are called Guallaves ('Piki Bread' or 'wafer bread') and sweet bread. The activities of the men are their plantings, raising of livestock, more sheep and goats than cattle, having of the former a considerable proportion. Horses they also raise, although few. They hunt deer at the time when they are fattest so that the skin will be better, providing them one of their best items of trade. The women are as industrious as the men, or more so. They make the best and finest serapes that are known, blankets, wraps, cotton cloth, coarse cloth, sashes and other (things) for their dress and for sale. And finally the little coiled baskets or xicaras that are called 'Navajo' (are) so esteemed, pretty and useful not only in the Interior provinces, but even in Mexico City as I show with letters from persons who have ordered them from me ... finally Antonio rising forcefully made me take three buckskins from his father, one from Captain Menchero, and one serape from his uncle, El Cojo. I had to take said things and a little tray (basketry?) from one of Antonio's nieces in order not to offend them, ...". Troncoso returned to Santa Fe April 10.
  • June 20 - It was reported that the Gila Apaches in a raid during the previous month had stolen the horse herd of the Navajos around Guadalupe, north of Mt. Taylor, including four animals of the Navajo interpreter, Francisco García.
  • August 27 - Assembling an expedition at Laguna, New Mexico, to be launched against the Gila and Mimbres Apaches, Governor Don Fernando de la Concha recorded at that place on this date that no less than 53 Navajos "... joined me on the previous day; but realizing the great expense which it would cause the treasury to furnish them with food for two months, as well as the wearing down of the king's horses which would result, I dismissed a part of them, thanking them for their good will and presenting them with gifts. I kept the well-known Antonio el Pinto and 19 of his family group which is composed of some of the most vigorous individuals and best acquainted with the territory to which we are proceeding ..." On Septermber 5 near Tres Lagunas, New Mexico, the Governor recorded: "At dawn today, I sent out 48 men as spies guided by the Navajo Antonio el Pinto, ... At one o'clock we all started out ... in search of a spring of water which Antonio himself told us would be found at the foot of some mountains. Another Navajo who had been left with us for this purpose by Antonio guided us to this place ... This place was named Ojo del Oso because a bear was found here ..." The following day "... At 4 o'clock in the afternoon, Antonio el Navajo and his scouting party rejoined me and reported that no more than four old trails of the enemy had been found." At dawn on the 7th, "... another party of 48 men started out on a scouting trip, led by the same Navajo and by the interpreter of this same nation, Francisco García, leaving another Navajo and the Ácoma Indian named Casimiro to guide us to the place which he had designated ..." September 9, "After all my forces were together, I had Antonio el Navajo called in and asked him what hour he considered the best to start out on our march. He had the greatest objections to crossing the mountains and assured me that I would lose the supply train and horseherd; however, he was willing to lead me." The following day "At 11 o'clock, ... I started out on my way guided by the same Navajo ... He led us south-southwest through canyons which were not too rough until we came to a valley of considerable width ... Before we could unsaddle, our spies reported that there was an Indian camp in the vicinity. Immediately a Commanche and a Navajo appeared saying that the Apaches were very near and would escape if we delayed ... I decided to attack ... the enemy was overtaken and beaten to such an extent that we counted 18 dead warriors and four were taken prisoners; ..." The 11th, Concha recorded: "... I decided to continue my original idea of crossing the range to emerge on the other side. But when I called Antonio el Navajo to discuss this purpose, he made excuses to me, saying that he did not feel at all well because of a blow which he had received as he was killing a Gila Apache on the previous nigt. I ... offered him rewards in order to win him over but it was no possible. In view of his determination, I became equally determined to take him by force if he would not go willingly and for this purpose I charged Delgado and the Navajo interpreter to take him aside to advise him to reconsider such a grave error. These managed to convince him to go willingly ... " East of present Silver City, New Mexico, in the Mimbres Mountains, the Governor recorded on September 12: "On this day, several Apaches appeared on the hilltops and one of them recognized Antonio el Navajo and spoke to him, although at a considerable distance, complaining that he had shown us their territory and saying that all the Apaches were in the gravest consternation on that account; ending by challenging him and uttering threats. These circumstances are advantageous, as much because of the fear whichour knowledge of the area inspires in them as because of the hatred against the Navajos which it had produced ..." On the 18th, the Navajos, who were impatient to return home, were sent back, and the expedition returned to Santa Fe October 6. Antonio el Pinto's presence and conduct convinced the Governor that the severance of the Navajo-Gila alliance was indeed a reality.
  • Nov 12 - Governor Concha reported to Ugarte, Señor Comandante-General de Provincias Internas, the "... excellent footing wich we find ourselves at present with the Navajos ..." which promised permanent peace between the Navajos and the Spaniards. He also reported how, under the Navajo Chief Antonio el Pinto, the tribe had constructed ten rock towers or fortifications within their encampments to safeguard their women and children from the continuous invasions by the Gila Apaches. He also recommended that the Navajos be established in permanent villages. Governor Concha concluded finally that Antonio el Pinto should be given the title of "General".
  • Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, and New Hampshire, ratified the Constitution, thereby achieving the necessary nine-state acceptance to put it into effect. Virginia and New York ratified it after heated debate. Rhode Island and North Carolina refused to ratify it. The Bill of Rights was recommended by the anti-Federalist.
  • Maryland and Virginia gave land on the Potomac River to the Congress as the site for a federal capital.
  • Mobs rioted in New York and Boston to protest the use of cadavers (human bodies) for dissection in medical schools.
  • Northwest America, the first American ship built on the west coast, was launched.
  • Cases and Observations, America's first collection of medical papers, was published by the Medical Society of New Haven.
  • Francis Hopkinson, who claimed himself to be the first native-born American Composer, publshed Seven Songs for the Harpsichord.
  • In the U.S., The Federalist papers were published.
  • Austria entered the Russo-Turkish war as Russia's ally.
  • Gustavus III of Sweden invaded Russian Finland. The Danes invaded Sweden but were repulsed.
  • The Assembly of Notables failed to solve the financial crisis in France. King Louis SVI ordered elections for the Estates-General.
  • Temporary insanity of King George III caused the regency crisis in England for a year.
  • Andrew Meikle, Scottish Millwright, patented a thrasher for removing husks from grain.
  • Lagrange published Mécanique Analytique, a 100-year summary of advances in mechanics.
  • Mozart composed his three greatest symphonies: Jupiter Symphony, Symphony in E flat, and Symphony in G minor.
  • Japanese Artist, Kitagawa Utamaro, published Insects, a book illustrated with his color prints.
  • In London, England, John Walter, founder of the Daily Universal Register (1785), changed its name to The Times.
  • Rules for "Cricket" are set down at the Marylebone Cricket Club in London, England.
  • During 1790, the residents of San Blas on the Rio Puerco in Bernalillo County were forced to abandon their settlements because of Navajo and Apache attacks.
  • The first U.S. census set the U.S. population at 4 million. Of 4 million, approximately 25% resided in New England, 25% in the Middle States, and 50% in the South. The largest city was Philadelphia with 42,000 inhabitants, followed in order by New York, Boston, Charleston, and Baltimore.
  • The U.S. Federal government assumed the national debt. The Bank of the United States was proposed. Revenue was raised by import tariffs and excise taxes.
  • The seat of U.S. government moved from New York City to Philadelphia, which became the new capital.
  • Noah Webster was instrumental in gaining passage of the Copyright Act.
  • Congress rejected a proposal by Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, that the U.S. adopt a decimal system of meaurement (an early metric system).
  • Samuel Slater built the first American steam-powered cotton-processing machines in Rhode Island, an event that marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in America.
  • American, John Greenwood, invented a foot-powered dental drill.
  • Mathew Carey published the first Roman Catholic Bible in the U.S.
  • The National Assembly in France drafted a constitution, creating a limited monarchy with a unicameral legislature elected by qualified voters.
  • Sweden won the naval victory against Russia. A peace treaty was signed between the countries, leaving Finland and Karelia in Russian hands.
  • Tippoo Sahib battled against the British in India.
  • Jews in France were granted civil liberties.
  • Watt invented the pressure gaurge.
  • In Vienna, Mozart composed the comic opera, Cosi fan tutte (All Women Are Like That).
  • July 1 - It was reported that the Gileño Chief, Napachuli, also known as Tecolote, led a group of eight warriors and two women to visit the Navajos in an attempt to make peace. The Navajos suspected treachery and killed all of the delegation escept the two women, who having remained at a distance from the meeting, escaped.
  • July 12 - It was reported on this date that the Navajos, continuing their war against the Gileño Apaches "... have killed, and made prisoner 71 slaves of the Gileños since the 8th of April of this year until the 21st of June just past. Due to a barbarous custom established among them they have sacrificed all the adults and have remained with only the children in order that they might serve them in the future in the capacity of servants." It was further reported that "... the Navajos are found established on the outskirts of the jurisdiction of the Rio Abajo, and of the Pueblos of Ácoma and Laguna ..."
  • July 25 - Pedro de Nava, Comandante-General in Chihuahua, wrote Governor Concha in Santa Fe regarding hostilities in Sonora, Mexico attributed to Navajos.
  • It was reported that Navajos had developed a new trade in peltries and fabric (blankets) with the Spaniards.
  • During 1791, even earlier, and ito 1792, frequent references were made to the good behavior and conduct of the Navajos as well as other tribes, including the Apaches, Jicarillas, Utes, and Comanches.
  • American Indians armed by the British, attacked settlements in the Northwest Territory. American Indians defeated U.S. forces near the Wabash River in Ohio.
  • Vermont became the 14th state, ending 14 years as an independent republic in North America.
  • The States ratified the Bill of Rights, which became part of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Pierre-Charles L'Enfant, Engineer, completed the design of Washington, D.C.
  • Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography was published in Paris, France.
  • Louis XVI, trying to flee France, was stopped and returned to Paris. He was forced to accept the constitution, which made him a figurehead.
  • British passed the Canada Constitutional Act, dividing Quebec into Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) and Lower Canada (present-day Quebec).
  • Mozart conducted the first performance of his fairy-tale opera, The Magic Flute. Later that year, Mozart died before completing Requiem (Mass for the Dead). His student Franz Saver Sussmayr, completed the work by following Mozart's sketches and deathbed instructions.
  • Haydn composed Surprise Symphony, one of his so-called "London Symphonies" (No. 93-104).
  • Political Philosopher and Author, Thomas Paine, published in England the first part of The Rights of Man, supporting the French Revolution and calling for an overthrow of the English monarchy.
  • Jan 24 - Governor Concha reported to Pedro de Nava in Chihuahua that the Navajos living between Ácoma, Laguna and Zuñi and along the lower Rio Grande would not be useful as guides for an expedition against the Apaches, nor in blazing the trail to Sonora.
  • Republican Party (later Democratic-Republican) was formed to oppose the Federalists. Republicans led by Jefferson felt the Federalists' policies favored urban financial and commercial groups and were harmful to the farmers. Republicans, who were pro-French, opposed a strong centralized government, favored by the Federalist, who were pro-British.
  • Congress passed a national conscription act to require "each and every free able-bodied white male citizen of the republic" to serve in the U.S. militia.
  • A mint was established in Philadelphia.
  • New York Stock Exchange was organized.
  • Robert B. Thomas founded The Farmer's Almanac.
  • Russian Army invaded Poland, which was recovering from the partition of 1772. Prussia invaded the country in turn.
  • Treaty of Jassy ended Russo-Turkish war. Russia received Oczakov and boundary along the Dniester River, but gave back Moldavia and Bessarabia.
  • Francis II became the last Holy Roman Emperor.
  • France declared war on Austria and Prussia, which hope to restore Louis XVI to the throne.
  • Invading Austrian and Prussian forces were repulsed at the Battle of Valmy. France seized the Austrian Netherlands.
  • Baptist Missionary Society was founded in London, England.
  • Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle composed La Marseillaise, the French national anthem.
  • Beethoven began studying with Haydn in Vienna.
  • An earthquake in Hizen, Japan killed about 15,000 people; another in Quito, Ecuador, killed about 41,000.
  • Bubonic plague in Egypt; about 80,000 people died.
  • Feb 27 - Apaches attacked Ácoma and were pursued by a scouting party of Navajos and Lagunas led by a Spaniard. Overtaking the Apaches in the mountains, they killed three, but the Spaniard was lost.
  • May 6 - Governor Concha reported to the Viceroy Conde de Revilla Gigedo that the Comanches, Navajos, Utes, and Jicarilla Apaches remained at peace with New Mexico, but there was some fighting between the Comanches and the other three tribes. In the winter of 1792, the Utes and Navajos joined together and attacked a Comanche camp where the men were absent hunting buffalo. They over came the encampment easily and captured or killed the women, children, and stock. In retaliation, the Comanches had formed a large war party and completely destroyed a Ute ranchería. According to the Governor, all this happened at some distance from the settlements, but, he wrote, if the Comanches should decide to attack, the Navajos would cause trouble for New Mexico. The Governor further reported that the was trying to settle the trouble between the two tribes and had asked the Navajo "General" to gather all the Comanches captives and bring them to Santa Fe so that he could deliver them to their tribe.
  • Oct 26 - Antonio el Pinto, Head War Chief of the Navajos, died at his hogan near Guadalupe, New Mexico, of wounds received from a Gila Apache raiding party which he and other Navajos had pursued into the San Mateo Mountains. After killing two of the enemy, he had been shot in the right shoulder by an Apache arrow. After his death, a Navajo war party accompanied by Ute and Jemez allies, set out to avenge the old Chief's death.
  • Washington declared U.S. neutrallity in British-French war. Washington and Adams were re-elected President and Vice President, respectively.
  • Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act, making it illegal to aid or to prevent the arrest of runaway Negro slaves.
  • Irish American Architect, James Hoban, designed the White House.
  • George Washington laid the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol building.
  • American, Eli Whitney, invented the cotton gin. ("Gin" is short for engine.) The cotton gin greatly increased cotton production and revived the dying slave economy of the south.
  • The monarchy was abolished in France. King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were executed by the guillotine.
  • Britain, Holland, and Spain, joined Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, in the First Coalition against France.
  • Committee of Public Safety began Reign of Terror as political measure in France. Many were guillotine for treason. New French armies were raised.
  • Second Partition of Poland gave most of Lithuania and western Ukraine to Russia. Prussia gets Danzig, Thorn, and Great Poland. Poland loses another third of its territory.
  • The Louvre in Paris became a national gallery.
  • Compulsory education from the age of six took effect in France.
  • David's "The Dead Marat" portrayed the recently asssassinated revolutionary leader.
  • Goya completed two paintings, "Village Bullfight" and "The Madhouse".
  • June 28 - In drawing up instructions for Lt. Col. Don Fernando Chacón, who was to succeed him as Governor, Col. Don Fernando de la Concha wrote regarding the Navajos: "... They possess much cattle and sheep, and a proportionate number of horses. In general they occupy rough mesas of difficult access, and pasture their livestock on the borders of the Rio Puerco and in the Canyon de Chelly. They cultivate their lands with careful attention. They always sow seasonally because of the scarcity of water whic occurs in their lands, but despite this inconvenience, they reap generally abundant harvest, and enjoy some commodities which are not known to the other barbarous Indians. Their origin is Apache, and as such they have always been allied and united with the bands of this group which inhabit the Sierras of Gila and Mimbres, destroying and assaulting the provinces of New Mexico, Vizcaya, and Sonora, until the year 1788, which I attained their separation and also set them against their former allies in such a manner that in the present time they wage incessant war against them. This tribe is not aware of the fact that in order to enjoy tranquility and the advantages of its industry, our friendship and alliance with us, are very suitable. For which reason I do not find a great obstacle to its continued existence on the same footing as it is today, which is equally advantageous to all of our settlements ..."
  • The U.S. Army under Gen. Wayne defeated American Indians at Fallen Timbers. American Indian resistance in Northwest Territory was broken.
  • Neutrality Act forbided U.S. citizens to serve in the military forces of foreign countries and forbided the giving of supplies to foreign warships in U.S. ports.
  • American, Thomas Paine, published the first part of The Age of Reason, which was popular with those who resented religious and political tyranny.
  • U.S. postal rates were usually paid by the person receiving the mail: 6¢ to 30 miles, 15¢ up to 200 miles, and 25¢ up to 400 miles.
  • Use of powder on men's hair goes out of fashion after more than 100 years. Hair was still worn in a braid, tied with a black ribbon.
  • Thaddeus Kosciusko led an unsuccessful Polish national uprising against Russian and Prussians.
  • Rivalry between groups in France led to executions of political leaders and their followers. French forces defeated the Austrians and advance south along the Rhine.
  • Belgium was occupied by the French.
  • Britain suspended the Habeas Corpus Act as a measure against revolutionary agitation.
  • Claude Chappe, French Engineer, invented the semaphore, a device for communicting via visual signals.
  • Elements of Geometry, by French Mathematician Adrien-Marie Legendre, became the standard geometry text throughout Europe and North America.
  • Erasmus Darwin, English Physician, suggested a theory of evolution more than 50 years before his grandson, Charles Darwin, formulated his theory.
  • David, imiprisoned in Luxenbourg after the French revolution painted "Self-Portrait" and "View of the Luxembourg Gardens".
  • Goya, now deaf after a 2-year illness, painted "Procession of the Flagellants".
  • After some sheep were stolen and the herder captured near Albuquerque, the Navajos were suspected as being guilty since the Gileño and Mimbreño Apaches seldom stole sheep. Governor Chacón was instructed by Pedro de Nava to try to settle the matter with the Navajos.
  • July 15 - Governor Chacón wrote de Nava: "The Navajos, who you suspect, could have aided the Apaches in their incursions. Since the death of the General, Antonio (el Pinto), they are irreconcilable enemies, so that with us they demonstrate an invariable and sincere peace. These gentiles do not want for sheep, for those that they possess are innumerable, and their horse herds have increased considerably; they plant a great deal and in good lands. They work their wool with more delicacy and pleasure than Spaniards. Thus the men, as well as the women, go decently dressed, and as for the headmen, rarely is he witout ... silver. They are more adept at speaking Spanish than any other gentile nation, ..."
  • Gen. Wayne signed the Treaty of Greenville with the Chiefs of 12 American Indian tribes. These Indians then ceded lands in the Northwest Territory to white settlers.
  • U.S. Naturalization Act made five-year residency a requirement for U.S. citizenship. Members of the nobility who entered the U.S. were required to give up their titles.
  • Treaty of San Lorenzo between Spain and the U.S. established a Florida boundary and gave U.S. right of navigation on the Mississippi River.
  • Stuart, an American, painted a famous portait of George Washington. The engraving of one of them is now on the U.S. one dollar bill.
  • One of the earliest American unions, the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers (shoemakers), was organized in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • American, Robert Fulton, patented the first power-shovel for digging canals.
  • The Netherlands, occupied by the French, was reconstituted as the Batavian Republic.
  • French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte put down a royalist uprising. Napoleon became Commander of the Army in Italy.
  • Third French Constitution formed Directory government, which continued war against Austria, Britain, and Sardinia.
  • All of Poland was divided among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in the Third Partition. Russia annexed Courland and received the most territory.
  • Prussia made peace, ceded the left bank of the Rhine to France. Spain made peace too.
  • British conquered Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) from the Dutch.
  • Irish Parliament founded a Catholic seminary to prevent Priests from traveling throughout the continent for study where they might be influenced by revolutionary ideas.
  • The Speenhamland Act went into effect in England. To relieve the poor, wages were supplemented by aid from the government.
  • Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship described a young man's education and social development - a classic example of a novel in the Bildungs - roman genre.
  • Goya completed the portrait, "The Duchess of Alba".
  • Paris Conservatoire de Musique was established.
  • April 1 - Navajos broke the established peace by renewing their former alliance with the Gileño Apaches. Pedro de Nava in Chihuahua found the sudden change in Navajo alliances inexplicable and wrote Governor Chacón to ask if anything done by the officials in New Mexico might have caused it. He ordered the Governor to ascertain the cause and inform the Navajos that war would mean attacks by troops from Chihuahua aend Sonora as well as from New Mexico. He further informed the Governor that he should be particularly careful to maintain the alliances with the Comanches, Utes, and Jicarillas, and to organize the province for defense and to prepare for campaigns.
  • In his compilation of notes on the Apachean bands in 1796, Lt. Col. Don Antonio Cordero wrote of the Navajos: "This tribe is the farthest north of all of their nation. It inhabits the mountain range and the mesas of Navajo which gives them their name. They are not nomadic like the other Apaches, and they have fixed domiciles: of which there are ten, namely: Sevolleta, Chacoli, Guadalupe, Cerro-Cabezon, Agua Salada, Cerro Chato, Chusca, Tunicha, Chelle and Carrizo. They sow corn and other vegetables. They raise sheep and they manufacture coarse cloth, blankets and other textiles of wool whic they trade in New Mexico. In past times they were enemies of the Spaniards: at present they are their faithful friends and are governed by a general who is appointed by the Governor: they suffer some inconveniences which are caused by their compatriots the Chiricaguis and Gileños, who are their neighbors on the south; on the north they bound with the Yutes, on the west with the Moquinos (Hopis), and on the east with the province of New Mexico."
  • George Washington's "Farewell Address" warned against U.S. involvement in foreign affairs. He refused the Presidency for a third term.
  • John Adams (Federalist) was elected President. Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) was elected Vice-President.
  • Tennessee became the 16th state of the U.S.
  • Houdon's marble statue of George Washington was set up in the state capitol at Richmond, Virginia.
  • America's first suspension bridge was built across Jacob's Creek in Westmoreland, Pennsylvania, by James Finley.
  • The first complete works of Shakespeare were published in the U.S.
  • The U.S. Congress authorized the construction of Zane's Trace, a road from Wheeling (now in West Virgnia) to Limestone (now Maysville), Kentucky. It became one of the main routes traveled by westbound settlers.
  • American, Robert Fulton, wrote Treatise on the Improvement of Canal Navigation.
  • Spain joined France in the war against Britain.
  • French forces under Napoleon won victories against the Austrians at Lodi and Arcole in northern Italy. Napoleon forced Sardinia to make peace, established the Lombard Republic, and obtained armistices from the King of Naples and the Pople.
  • Austrian forces defeated the French at Amberg and Wurzberg in southern Germany, forcing the French to retreat to the Rhine.
  • Edware Jenner, English Physician, inoculated a boy with matter from a cowpow lesion. The boy became immune to smallpox.
  • In his production of Zephyr et Flore, French Choreographer, Charles Didelot, introduced the use of "flights" as dancers glided through the air on wires.
  • The Glasgow Missionary Society was founded in Scotland.
  • Jan 7 - It was reported that the Navajos, in an effort to demonstrate their sincerity in keeping the peace with the Spaniards, had returned some horses recently stolen during the time they had broken the peace.
  • Oct 28 - Apaches attacked a party of Navajos and Zuñis who were hunting together. They killed three of the Navajos and eight Zuñis, and drove off their horses.
  • The San Xavaier del Bac Catholic Church in Arizona was completed. It represented the height of Spanish-Mexican baroque style in the U.S.
  • France, believing Jay's Treaty showed U.S. bias toward Britain, interferred with U.S. shipping. Three agents of Charles Maurice de Talleyrand tried to extort money from U.S. commissioners in Paris. (the XYZ Affair).
  • American, Charles Newbold patented America's first cast iron plow amid reports that the iron would poison the soil and increase the weeds.
  • American, Thompson designed the vaccum bottle.
  • Austria and France signed preliminary Peace of Leoben, which was confirmed by the Treaty of Campo Formio. Austria ceded Belgium to France and received Venice, Istria, and Dalmatia. France kept the Ionian Islands. Secret promises were made.
  • Naploeon Bonaparte created the Cisalpine Republic and the Ligurian Republic in Italy.
  • Talleyrand became French Foreign Minister. France ordered seizure of all neutral ships carrying British goods.
  • British defeated Spanish fleet off Cape St. Vincent, Portugal.
  • The first copper pennies were minted in England, and the first one-pound notes (paper money) were issued.
  • Goya completed two of his most famous paintings, "Maja desnuda" and "Maja vestida".
  • August Wilhelm von Schlegel, German scholar, began his translation of Shakespeare.
  • Haydn composed the Emperor Quarter.
  • The Navajos revolted September 1, 1799. Recounting events on November 18, 1799, Governor Chacón reported that a trader went among the Navajos and, because he refused to sell them a gun, was killed. Two headmen came to Santa Fe offering to pay for the death according to their customs, but the Governor would not condescend to this and said that it was enough that they recognized the guilt and his forgiveness would be a sign of his friendship so that they would not commit similar insults. A Zuñi went to Canyon de Chelly to trade for buckskins and the Navajos killed him in a disput over gambling. The Apaches stole a horse herd near Laguna, mostly Navajo horses, and the Alcalde Mayor led men in pursuit and retook the animals, which seemed to assure their friendship, but on the day of Saint Augustine at the Fiesta at Isleta, Navajos attacked an Apache and fled. Three other Navajos there were arrested and held until the Apache recovered and then were released, being escorted home by the interpreter who made known the Governor's act of friendship. On the interpreter's return, he learned of the theft of horses from Jemez and went back to Tunicha where the family of the late Navajo Headman Antonio el Pinto was and they returned 25 of the stolen horses. The Governor gave orders to withdraw all herds from the Rio Puerco to the Rio Grande Valley, but decided to postpone a campaign until spring. A brother of the headman Chato came to Laguna to see if it was safe for the Chiefs to visit Santa Fe. The Alcalde thought him a spy and had him arrested, but he escaped at midnight due to the negligence of his guards.
  • Settlement of the Mississippi Territory, created by Congress in 1798, was hampered by hostile American Indians and by Spanish control of the Gulf ports.
  • U.S. President John Adams, avoided war with France by re-opening negotiations. Pro-war group of Federalist, led by Alexander Hamilton, bitterly attacked Adam's friendly policy toward France.
  • Gracie Mansion, now the official residence of the New York City Mayor, was constructed in upper Manhattan, New York.
  • First recorded use of the word "scab" came in to use from the strike of shoemakers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. "Scab" refers to workers hired to replace strikers.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion of Syria was repelled by the Turks at Acre. Napoleon, back in Egypt, defeated invading Turks and British at Abukir. He returned to France, overthrew the Directory, and set up the Consulate, with himself as First Consul.
  • Austrian forces defeated the French at Stockach, Magnano, and Zurich. Russo-Austrian forces won victories at Cassano, Trebbia, and Novi. Disunity brought Russia's withdrawal from the coalition.
  • British suppressed rebellion of the United Irishmen who sought independence for Ireland.
  • Russo-Turkish fleet seized the Ionian Islands, which were reclaimed by France in 1807.
  • Goya completed "The Caprices", a series of 82 satirical etchings that included a self-portrait.
  • After his release from prison, David re-established his reputation with "The Intervention of the Sabine Women", a painting often incorrectly called "Rape of the Sabines".
  • Russia granted the Russian-American company a monopoly of trade in Alaska.
  • The Church Missionary Society was founded in London, England.
  • The Rosetta Stone, found near Rosetta (Egypt) made possible the deciphering of hieroglyphics.
  • A carcass of an extinct mammoth, a large elephant-like mammal, was discovered preserved in Siberia.

You are visitor 57,329 to Timeline_Spanish_1751_1799.cfm since 08/27/01
and visitor 17,038,088 to since 06/15/97

URL: /Timeline_Spanish_1751_1799.cfm
Creator(s): Harrison Lapahie Jr.
Dated Created: 01/01/2000
Version: 4.0
Updated: 05/25/2010
Curator(s): Harrison Lapahie Jr.
Resource(s): books, audio, internet
Questions/Comments: Harrison Lapahie Jr.

Timeline_Spanish_1751_1799.cfm: Copyright © 2000 - Harrison Lapahie Jr. - All Rights Reserved.