Navajo Timeline

Year Navajo History World History
  • Extensive trade of Navajo woven cloth. Livestock raising starts to become an important factor in the economy of the Navajo people.
  • A large group of Apaches (the Navajos) seem to have developed a distinct culture separate from the other Apache bands. They are known as "Apaches Du Nabahu", Spanish for "Apaches of the Cultivated Fields". The Spanish adopt the word "Apache" from the Zuni Indian language meaning "Enemy", and "Nabahu" from the Tewa Indian language meaning "the large area of cultivated land". The name the Navajos call themselves is "Diné" (meaning "the people").
  • The Spanish begin calling the bands of Apaches under a strong headman in different areas of the southwest different names. Bands of Apaches are beginning to be known as: Jicarilla, Mescalero, Chiricahua, Lipan, Kiowa, Yuma, Bedonkohe, Chokonen, Nednhi, Mimbres, and Aravaipa Apaches. The name the Apaches call themselves is Tinneh (meaning "the people").
  • Migration to the Plains. Acquisition of the horse by all Plains nations. Many of the tribes that acquired horses migrated to the Plains, particularly the Comanches (the southern Plains) and the Siouan-speaking peoples of Minnesota (the northern Plains). Horses significantly changed life among the Plains peoples, making it easier to follow the buffalo, and to transport goods. Horse ownership became a symbol of prestige and wealth within tribes. It also changed the manner and organization of warfare among the Plains Indians. Warrior societies developed in which great horsemanship was the decisive attribute.
  • In Europe, the 1700s were known as the Age of Enlightenment. The new intellectual movements, rooted in the scientific movement and devoted to rationalism, emerged in France and spread through Europe and to America.
  • A map produced in 1700 by G. de L'isle and titled "L'Amerique Septentrionale", shows "Apaches de Navajo" located northwest of the Hopi villages and northeast of the "Coano ou Comana" (Havasupais or Cosninos). In 1700, the Apaches reported that a town of the Jumanos had been destroyed by Navajos. The population of the Navajos at the beginning of the 18th century was perhaps about 4000. A warlike people, they customarily raided their Pueblo neighbors, and annually, in February, made slaving raids against the Pawnee and Wichita villages on the plains to the east. In 1700, and during the first half of the 18th century, or prior to 1745, the San Juan River was known as the Rio Grande de Navajo.
  • Oct 11 - Espeleta, Hopi Chief at Oraibi, with 20 delegates visited Governor Pedro Rodriguez Cubero in Santa Fe but were treated as vassals of the crown rather than as a formal embassy from a foreign power sent to conclude a treaty of peace and amity.
        By this time the Hopi village of Awatobi (known as Talahogan, "House of Singing Men-Priests" to the Navajos) had virtually become again a Christianized Pueblo.
  • Hopis massacred all male villagers of Awatovi. The villagers of Awatovi were friendly with the Spanish priests and had agreed to allow the return of a Spanish mission. The Spanish priests, from either the Jesuit or Franciscan orders, oversaw life at the mission, using Indian labor to build the churches and to tend the fields that supported the economy of the mission. The resulting political and economic control was in direct opposition to the traditional leadership of the Hopi villages, which was chosen by birth, clan, and family. The Hopi, who had absorbed many peoples from the Rio Grande pueblos before the rebellion of 1680, wanted no Spanish intrusion.
        According to Hopi history, in the last days of the year 1700, or in the beginning of 1701, Espeleta and some 100 Hopis from the other pueblo villages agreed to enter Awatovi at night during preparations for a religious festival. While all the Awatovi men were in the kivas, ceremonial rooms dug down into the earth, the Hopi men pulled up the ladders, and fell upon the unsuspecting village at night. The men were mostly killed, stifled in their estufas (kivas), and their building were set a fire. After killing all the adult men, they destroyed the village and kivas, and dragged their women and children into captivity or settled them in other villages. The ruins of Awatovi remain on Antelope Mesa a few miles beyond the site of the president-day Hopi villages. The ferocity of the destruction reveals the determination of the Hopi to resist Spanish control. In 1701, Governor Cubero punished some of the Hopis for this outrage.
  • Catholic Priests were banned from Massachusetts. The penalty for them being found in the colony was either life in prison or execution.
  • Whaling increased along the New England coast.
  • Henrietta Johnson of Charleston, South Carolina, was the first known woman Painter in America.
  • Samuel Sewall wrote, The Selling of Joseph, an anti-slavery tract.
  • Approximately 275,000 people lived in the Colonies. Boston, the largest city, had about 7,000 inhabitants. New York, 5,000. Newport, Rhode Island, about 2,000. 250 families lived in Charleston, South Carolina, and Philadelphia had about 700 houses.
  • The population in France was 19 million. In England and Scotland, 7.5 million. In the Hapsburg dominions (Central Europe), 7.5 million. In Spain, 6 million.
  • The Great Northern War began. Russia, Poland, and Denmark fought Sweden to break Swedish supremacy in the Baltic area. Charles XII of Sweden forced the Danes to make peace and defeated Peter I of Russia at Narva. Poles invaded Livonia.
  • Feb 25 - It was reported that four Navajos " ... after a successful hunt, had traveled to Zuni to trade their meat for other commodities. They learned that the Zuni folk were planning to kill the resident soldiers, stationed there to protect the missionary, and three other Spanish residents". The Navajo Captain sent a courier to Zia and then to Santa Fe to report the uprising.
  • The Navajos " ... broke their peace of some years standing, and against them Governor (Pedro Rodriguez) Cubero led 100 men and 150 Indian allies." A Navajo Captain, however, hastened to Taos to seek peace, and the governor was persuaded to call off any punitive action agains the Navajos.
  • April 2 - Governor cubero wrote the Viceroy that the Navajos had requested that missionaries be sent among them.
  • To combat delinquency in Massachusetts, Mather formed the "Society for the Suppression of Disorders", a sort of vigilante committee to keep an eye and ear open for swearing, blaspheming, and patronage of bawdy houses.
  • Act of Establishment in Maryland officially recognized the Church of England.
  • Queen Anne's War began. England fought France and Spain for control of territory. English sacked and burned St. Augustine, Florida.
  • Charles XII of Sweden invaded Poland and captured Warsaw and Cracow.
  • French seized the lower Rhine. Duke of Marlborough, English General, captured Venlo and Liége.
  • Anne became Queen of England.
  • The 16 year old J.S. Bach walked 30 miles to hear Organist Jan Reinken.
  • Amontons invented the Air Pressure Thermometer.
  • March 12 - The Zunis threatened trouble against the resident priest, and Governor Cubero sent a detachment of soldiers under the command of Roque de Madrid to find Fray Garaicoechea, if still alive, and bring him to safety. The Zunis, thus left without a Pastor, were " ... exposed to the diabolical influences of sedicious elements, the apostate rebels of Moqui and the pagan Apaches of Navajo."
  • Earthquake killed almost 200,000 people in Tokyo.
  • French threatened Vienna. Marlborough captured Bonn, Huy, Limbury, and Guelders.
  • The Archduke Charles of Austria (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI) invaded Spain with English troops and proclaimed himself King of Spain (Charles III).
  • Hungarians revolted against Austrian government.
  • German Composer, George Frederick Handel began his musical career in Hamburg.
  • Some Hopi Indians at Taos were discovered to be engaged in subversive activities, and rumors of widespread revolt again ran through the province. "The ever hostile Moquis, the chief connivers, had held a great council in the valley of La Piedra Alumbre." Navajos and Tewas from San Ildefonso and San Juan Pueblos attended this council to plan the uprising against the Spaniards. "The alliance soon exploded when some Navajos annoyed the Santa Claras by stealing a horse at that pueblo. Taken into custody, the Navajos admitted that they had made the alliance in the first place just because they wished to gain entry into the pueblos. Times were hard then in the Navajo country, and the hungry Indians had hoped to find food in the Christian pueblos".
  • The French and their American Indian allies fought the colonist at Deerfield, Mass. Fifty colonist died, and more than 100 were carried off. The English colonial forces retaliated with an attack of the French fort at Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
  • Ministers in Maryland had the right to separate a man and a woman if the Minister disapproved of her. If the man did not obey, he could be brought into court, and if convicted, could be fined, or whipped until blood began to flow.
  • English-Austrian army under Marlborough and Prince of Savoy defeated decisively French-Bavarian army at the Battle of Blenheim in Bavaria.
  • English take Gibraltar from the Spanish.
  • The religious satire, A Tale of a Tub, was published anonymously by Jonathan Swift, English Clergyman and Satirist.
  • March 10 - Don Francisco Cuervo y Valdez assumed the office of Governor ad interim by the Viceroy's appointment. Conditions in New Mexico were not encouraging. Depredations by Navajos and Apaches were frequent, the Hopis were defiant, and the presidial soldiers in great need of clothing, arms, and horses.
  • Aug 19 - A large Spanish expedition led by Roque de Madrid returned to Zia Pueblo after campaigning against the Navajos in the Dinetah (old Navajo country in northwestern New Mexico) where they killed 40 or 50 Navajos, destroyed their fields, and took a number of prisoners. The Navajos, who were aided and incited by refugee Jemez, had taken refuge on the high penoles (rocky hills), and were defeated so severlly that they were forced to sue for peace.
  • Oct 13 - A Spanish expedition had attacked the Navajos in northwestern New Mexico during September of 1705. Some 200 Navajos were seen but fled upon the approach of the Spanish force. The Spaniards " ... left destruction in their path, having burned corn fields and destroyed huts of the Navajo people. They brought home an assortment of spoils of war: captive women and children, skins, baskets, and some horses and sheep; ... " and also restored to their homes, certain Pueblo Indian captives of the Navajos. "The desire for peace was made a reality as a result of these destructive forays against the Navajos. The majority of their captains came down to seek peace in the name of their peole, bringing some skins, baskets and other things from their country to ransom ... their people held as prisoners."
  • Virginia's Slavery Act stated all imported Negroes were to be life-long slaves unless they were Christians.
  • Thomas Odell of Boston, arrested for counterfeiting the new pound note, was sentenced to pay a fine and to spend a year in jail. Counterfeiting was a new crime, since paper money was just coming into use.
  • English forces seized Barcelona, Spain.
  • Tunis threw off Turkish rule. Husseinite Dynasty was founded.
  • Halley published A Synopsis of the Astronomy of Comets, in which he correctly predicted the re-appearance of Halley's Comet.
  • English Architech, John Vanbrugh designed the Blenheim Palace for the Duke of Marlborough, to later become the birthplace of England's wartime leader Winston Churchill.
  • Domencio Scarlatti, son of Alessandro, studied in Florence. A Harpsichord virtuoso, he is considered the Father of modern Piano-Playing.
  • J.S. Bach walked 200 miles to Lubeck to hear Buxtehude.
  • Jan 10 - In the certification of Captain Rael de Aguilar on this date it was stated that within fifteen days after his arrival in Santa Fe in 1705, Governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdez sent a company of soldiers in pursuit of two large bands of enemies from the Navajo rancherias who had stolen some beast and cattle from the towns of San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, and San Juan. Captain Aguilar stated also that " ... at the time that said Senor Governor and Captain-general, Don Francisco Cuervo y Valdez, came into this kingdom their pueblos were greatly harassed by the continual invasions made into them by the heathen enemy Indians of the Apaches (Navajo) nation, who killed many of their people and robbed them of their scant stores, falling upon them by surprise and subjecting them to constant danger, ... Such pueblos were those of the province of Zuni, Penol de Acoma, San Jose de la Laguna, Jemez, Pecos, Picuris, Taos, Santa Clara, and La Alameda ... "
  • Feb 23 - "When the Navajos sought peace with the Spanish in 1706, they came to Santa Fe bearing a large white skin painted with a cross." Three months previously, in November of 1705, Fray Antonio de Miranda, at Cebolleta, wrote that " ... they who made use of me in order that I shall obtain peace for them were the Apache of Navajo who brought me a holy cross which I sent to General Don Francisco Cuerbo (y Valdez)". The Navajos had said that they saw a painted cross, the White man's symbol of peace, on the way to the Moqui Pueblos.
  • Aug 18 - Governor Cuervo y Valdez reported: These Navajos wars " ... have continued from the year 1693 until last year, 1705, when they were halted by the war which I waged vigorously against them because of their great crimes, their audacity, and their reckless depredations upon the frontiers and pueblos of this kingdom." Concerning the lack of missionaries for the Navajo country, the governor reported: "The extensive province of Navajo is the seat, establishment, and dwelling-place of numerous rancherias of heathen Indians of this name. It extends about 100 leagues from south to north to the boundaries fo the numerous nations of Yutas, Carlanas, and Comanches. To the east it begins on our frontiers ... The line thus extends, from one extreme to the other, about 300 leagues. Directly to the west, the dividing line is the large river which, according to report, flows to the sea (Colorado River). In all this distance there live innumerable Indians fo the same (Navajo) nation, ... dwelling, as they do, in the territory extending from those frontiers to the banks and valleys of the said large river, ..."
  • Hunting season on deer was limited on Long Island, N.Y., because continued hunting had almost eliminated them.
  • Customhouse (government office for collecting revenue) was built at Yorktown, Virginia, port of entry for New York, Philadelphia, and other northern towns.
  • English, Dutch, and Danish troops under Marlborough defeated the French at the Battle of Ramillies and seized the Spanish Netherlands.
  • Prince of Savoy, aided by the Prussians, defeated the French at Turin, which resulted in the French evacuation of northern Italy.
  • Swedes invaded and over-ran Saxony. Charles XII of Sweden forced Augustus II to recognize Stanislaus I as King of Poland and to end his alliance with Russia.
  • Handel began three years in Italy which contributed greatly to his musical development.
  • The first Life Insurance office opened in London, England.
  • January - Governor Jose Chacon Medina Salazar (1707-1712) received word from Albuquerque that the new villa had been attacked by Apaches who had fled with the stolen livestock into the appropriately named Sierra de los Ladrones. The Governor dispatched Captain Feliz Martinez with 30 soldiers and 60 Indians in pursuit. The Apache, they discovered, were Navajo, and had the advantage of numbers. The pursuers prudently withdrew, and a general campagin was organized in which all of the available troops, settlers, and Pueblo Indians were to participate.
  • March 31 - A delegation of four Navajos who claimed to have been sent as ambassadors on behalf " ... of all the Captains of the rancherias and mountains of Navajo ... " arrived at Santa Clara Pueblo to renew the understanding with the Spaniards that the Navajos would live in peace.
  • April 6 - The governor wrote to the Duke of Alburquerque that the Navajo nation was continuously at war with the Moquis, but that they were at peace with the Zuni, where the Navajos " ... always enter in peace." At this time the Rio Chama Valley was the principal path of entry for Navajo marauders striking at the pueblos in the Rio Arriba.
  • The French and their American Indian allies destroyed a colony at Haverhill, Mass.
  • Marlborough and the Prince of Savoy defeated the French at Oudenaarde, Belgium.
  • British occupy Minorca and bombard Sardinia.
  • Charles XII of Sweden secured secret pact with Ukrainian Cossack hetman (leader) and invaded Russia.
  • J.S. Bach accepted a post as Organist at Weimar in the Chapel of Duke Wilhelm Ernst. Here he wrote some of his greatest Preludes and Fugues for organ.
  • As Concert Master at Eisenach, Germany, Composer Georg Philipp Telemann meant and began a close friendship with J.S. Bach.
  • Papin built a self-propelled paddle-wheel boat.
  • Feb 21 - Governor Marques de la Penuela issued a decree ordering Roque de Madrid, Maestre de Campo, to assemble the militia and pursue Navajos who recently raided in the vicinity of Santa Clara Pueblo. During 1709, Navajos also raided stock from Chimayo Canyon in the region of Santa Cruz, and even attacked the Presidio and pueblo of El Paso.
  • June 8 - Navajos sacked the Pueblo of Jemez and the church, desecrating its sacramental vessels, but were defeated in a virorous campaign led by Roque de Madrid against them in their own country and forced to make a treaty of peace. The same day, the Catholic missionary at Jemez buried a man and his wife and four children who had been killed in the attack.
  • August - For the first twenty days, Roque Madrid led about 100 Spanish soldiers and citizens together with some 300 Pueblo Indians allies on a 312 mile march to torch Navajo corn fields and homes in northwest New Mexico. Three times they fought hand-to-hand in retaliation for Navajo raiding.
  • Dec 8 - During 1709, there had been five campaigns against the Navajos. "Despite these efforts to punish the enemy, the Governor confessed in December that a sixth and major effort must be made." Roque de Madrid, te veteran campaigner, again led a force of soldiers and Pueblo allies into Navajo country. Traveling by way of Piedra Alumbre, some 45 miles from Santa Fe, "There they saw at a distance about 25 Navajos. Pursuing them they killed about ten or twelve and the others fled to the mountains." These campaigns resulted in a truce being established with the Navajos in 1710.
  • Quakers of Philadelphia established the first private home for mental illness. In 1751, it became part of Pennsylvania Hospital.
  • German and Swiss Protestants fled from Europe and settled in the Carolinas.
  • Peter I of Russia decisively defeated Charles XII of Sweden at the Battle of Poltava in the Ukraine.
  • Marlborough and the Prince of Savoy defeated the French at the Battle of Malplaquet.
  • Austrians defeated Philip V, King of Spain, at Almenara and Zaragoza.
  • Italian Harpsichord maker, Bartolomeo Cristofori, replaced that instrument's plucking mechanism with a hammer action, thus inventing the "Piano".
  • Gabriel Fahrenheit, German Physicist, invented the Alcohol Thermometer.
  • Abraham Darby, an Iron Master in Shropshire, England, devised a furnace for smelting pig-iron with coke. As a result, coal becomes an important fuel.
  • "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow" became a popular song.
  • On the John Senex Map prepared in 1710, "Apaches of Navajo" are located north of the Hopi villages, and it was noted that "this country extends far to the west."
  • Colonial population was estimated at 357,000. Colonial fashion included high heels and stiff stays (corsets). Large curled wigs were worn by both men and women.
  • New Englanders, aided by British ships and marines, capture Port Royal from the French. It was renamed Annapolis Royal.
  • Charles XII (a refugee in Turkey) persuaded the Ottoman Turks to fight Russia.
  • Philip V and the French won victories at Brihuega and Villaviciosa, Spain.
  • The French seized Mauritius from the Dutch.
  • The production of Handel's Opera, Agrippina in Venice marks the high point of his years in Italy.
  • Dec 16 - Trading with the Navajos and Apaches beyond the frontiers which could be guarded frequently produced friction which led Governor Don Juan Ygnacio Flores Mogollon to circulate an order prohibiting settlers from going to trade with the non-Christian Indians, under penalty of two months imprisonment and loss of any office which the Spanish trader might hold, a provision which suggested that local officials were among the principal offenders.
  • A Negro slave uprising in New York City resulted in the execution of more than 100 Negroes.
  • Carolina militia, aided by friendly Indians, attacked and killed more than 300 Tuscarora Indians near the Neuse River.
  • The last English trial for Witchcraft, Jane Wenham was convicted, but not executed.
  • Swiss Protestants defeated the Catholics at Villmergen, after which the Protestant cantons dominate in Switzerland.
  • Moguls suppressed the Sikhs, a militant religious order, in India.
  • May 16 - It was reported that a Tano Indian who had fled to the Navajos following the Pueblo Revolt of 1696, had returned to the Pueblo of Santa Clara and/or San Ildefonso.
  • June 4 - Two Navajos visited Santa Clara Pueblo. They were apprehended by Roque de Madrid and went willingly to see Governor Mogollon who questioned them through an interpreter from Picuris. The governor decided to detain them until Madrid could scout to see if there were any signs of enemies. The two Navajos declared that they were friends of the Spaniards.
  • In the spring, Navajos planted crops along the Rio Grande de Navajo (the San Juan River).
  • Oct 22 - After the resident missionary at San Ildefonso reported to the governor that Navajos had stolen stock belonging to that pueblo, Captain Cristobal de la Serna, with 50 Spanish soldiers, 20 vecinos (settlers) and 150 Pueblo Indian allies, was ordered to take to the field against the Navajos. The expedition was assembled at Jemez and marched to the northwest. The Navajos retreated as they approached but the expedition seized 30 Navajo captives and burned all their corn fields.
  • The Territory of Carolina was divided into North and South Carolina.
  • The Tuscarora War ended with the capture of the Indians' stronghold in South Carolina. Tuscarora Indians fled north and joined the Iroquois Confederation.
  • The Treaty of Utrecht ended Queen Anne's War. Britain received the Hudson Bay region, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia. France retained Cape Breton Island.
  • Peace of Utrecht ended War of the Spanish Succession. Treaties among Britain, France, Holland, and Prussia established protestant succession in England, separation of the crowns of France and Spain, and the kingship of Prussia. Savoy received Sicily. Britain received Gibraltar and Minorca. Spain signed the Asiento, giving Britain the sole right to the African slave trade with Spanish America.
  • The term species is introduced in the naming of natural classifications.
  • Bernardino Ramazzini, Italian Physician, introduced the concept of job related diseases.
  • Jakob Bernoulli published The Conjectural Arts, in which he introduced several important mathermatical concepts.
  • March - "Spanish reprisals were severe after the Navajos raided Jemez in March 1714, killing one of the principal men of that pueblo. with a smal force of soldiers and militia and 212 Pueblos, Captain Roque de Madrid reached Navajo country by way of the Chama Valley and turned south. In several engatements he reported killing about 30 Navajos, capturing 7 others, and seizing 200 fenegas of corn and 110 sheep. On their return the party stopped at Jemez."
  • Sept 26 - Navajo or Apache captives acquired during punitive expeditions against these tribes were usually purchased by local Spanish settlers either for resale or for service as slaves. Since conversion of souls was still a prime official objective of the governing officials, Governor Mogollon decreed on this date that non-Christian captives must be baptized just as were Negro slaves.
  • Tea was introduced into the colonies. The favorite non-alcoholic beverage was Chocolate, but Rum was popular in New England and beer in the middle Colonies.
  • The first pipe organ used in a church in the colonies was played during an Anglican service in King's Chapel, Boston. Its use was denounced by Puritans who forbade instrumental music during service.
  • Treaty of Rastatt between Louis XIV of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI confirmed Austrian possession of the Spanish Netherlands. Treaty of Baden restored Rhine's right bank to the Empire; France kept Alsace and Strasbourg.
  • Charles XII returned to his Swedish kingdom from Turkey.
  • George I, Elector of Hanover, became King of England, succeeding Queen Anne.
  • Peter the Great instituted public education in Russia.
  • Fahrenheit invented the Mercury Thermometer and devised the Fahrenheit Temperature Scale.
  • Oct 14 - For protection of the Zunis against threatened attacks from the Navajo-Apaches, Governor Flores Mogollon ordered a detachment of 25 soldiers to be stationed at that Pueblo.
  • Jacobite uprising in Scotland, opposing King George I, ended in disastrous Battles of Preston and Sheriffmuir.
  • Polish nobles rebelled against strict policies of Augustus II, who drove out Stanislaus I in 1709.
  • Brook Taylor, English Mathematician, published work on Perspective.
  • October - Acting Governor Felix Martinez directed Captain Cristobal de la Serna to march against the Navajos. Starting from Jemez with about 400 men, the majority of them Pueblo allies, they penetrated the Navajo province some 20 leagues, and at a place called Los Penolitos, they engaged the Navajos. Six Navajos were said to have been killed; no Spanish casualties were reported.
  • Japan allowed works in Western languages to be brought into the country. Dutch writings make an appearance, and the Japanese translate medical and military works.
  • Jacobite pretender to the throne of England fled to France.
  • Emperor Charles VI declared war on the Turks, who had been at war with Venice for two years. Prince of Savoy defeated the Turks at Petrovaradin, Yugoslavia.
  • Dutch received several strongholds along the French frontier of the Austrian Netherlands, as protection against an attack by France.
  • Sept 23 - Governor Antonio de Valverde visited the Jicarilla Apaches where he was informed by two sons of Chief El Coxo that " ... on this occasion (El Coxo) was absent because he had gone to the Navajo province."
  • Aurora Borealis (northern lights) was described for the first time in America.
  • Sweden and Hanover (lower Saxony) signed Peace of Stockholm.
  • France declared war on Spain.
  • British Parliament issued Declaratory Act, affirming its right to legislate for Ireland.
  • Liechtenstein became an independent principality.
  • By 1720, Navajo raids and reprisals ceased, and no longer were they numbered among the enemies of the province. For the next half century the Navajos and their Spanish neighbors lived at peace, attributable principally to pressures upon the Navajos from the Utes and Comanches. during this period, Navajo trade in textiles, baskets, skins and other items, including their war captives, grew to major importance in the commerce of the province.
  • Colonial population was estimated 474,388. Boston, 12,000. Philadelphia, 10,000. New York, 7,000. Charleston, S.C., 3,500. Newport, R.I., 3,800.
  • Bubonic Plague killed about 60,000 people in Marseilles, France.
  • Treaty of The Hague revised the Peace of Utrecht. Savoy was given Sardinia in place of Sicily, which was handed over to Austria. Naples went to Austria, which promised Parma, Piacenza, and Tuscany to Philip's son Charles (later Charles III of Spain). Spain joined the Quadruple Alliance.
  • May 30 - It was reported that the Jicarilla Apaches " ... have decided, since their persons are not being protected (from Comache attacks), to go to the province of the Navajos." Later during the same year, October 20, " ... your Excellency provide that which may be the most efficacious and proper, to the end that the Indians of La Jicarilla be reduced and not escape to the region of the Navajo ... "
  • Two-year reign of terror began in Isfahan when Afghan ruler ordered massacre of Persian nobility, many soldiers, and inhabitants.
  • Teaching of Chrisitianity banned by imperial edict in China. All Christian missionaries expelled.
  • Dec 6 - The governor issued orders prohibiting the sale of Apache (Navajo) captives to the Pueblo Indians. Penalties were imposed for violations.
  • English factory workers are forbidden to emigrate to America.
  • French Parliament placed the Clergy under the jurisdiction of the Crown.
  • Britain, Holland, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire signed the Treaty of Vienna.
  • Russia, Prussia, and the Holy Roman Empire agree to oppose Stanislaus I of Poland.
  • June 21 - Two Franciscan Priests, 67 year old Fray Carlos Delgado and Fray Jose Yrigoyen, who came to Cebolleta and Encinal in the Navajo country from Isleta, by way of Jemez Pueblo, Fray Jose's Mission, reported that during their six day visit they had converted more than 5000 Navajos, obviously an over generous estimate, as it is doubtful if there were many more than this number in the entire tribe at this early date. Early in 1750, however, efforts at missionizing the Navajos came to an end when the Navajos rebelled and drove out the two missionaries, Friars Juan Sanz de Lezaun and Manuel Vermejo, who had been assigned there, The Navajos insisted that " ... they had been raised like deer," and they did not wish to be reduced to pueblos and live like Christians. They denied that they had ever asked for missionaries, and claimed that they had told Fray Miguel de Menchero, on his visit to them in 1746, that they did not desire to become sedentary. Failure or inability of the missionary to give them " ... all that he had promised for bringing their children to be baptized" such as "mares, mules, horses, cows, clothing, and many sheep," was also a decisive factor in the Navajos' refusal to become missionized.
  • Iroquois Confederation ceded Ohio Valley territory north of the Ohio River to Britain.
  • Franklin invented the Pennsylvania Fireplace (or Franklin Stove) which provided much more heat on much less fuel than regular fireplaces.
  • French made an unsuccessful attack on Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia. King George's War began between British and French colonies.
  • Dutch joined Britain in alliance with Maria Theresa against France and Prussia.
  • Frederick II of Prussia, alarmed at rising Austrian power, invaded Bohemia, seized Prague, but was driven back by Austrian and Saxon forces.
  • Persians defeated the Turks near Kars, Turkey.
  • Rubber was first used in Europe about this time.
  • J.S. Bach completed Part 2 of The Well-Tempered Clavier.
  • "God Save the Queen" was published in Thesaurus Musicus.
  • Population of Calcutta is estimated to be 100,000, and Bombay 70,000.
  • Nov 30 - Fray Cristobal de Escobar y Llamas advised the Viceroy of New Spain regarding the missions of the Hopis, that " ... between New Mexico and the Moquis lies the Apache (Navajo) Indian Nation, ... In order to reach the Moquis one must traverse the entire Apache country ... "
  • French and Indian allies raided Maine towns and forts and burn Saragoga, N.Y.
  • Ewald Georg von Kleist, German Scientist, invented the capacitor, or condenser, a device used to store electricity.
  • Aug 12 - On the west side of the Rio Grande adventuresome pioneers founded Abiquiu and Ojo Caliente, prior to 1747. In August of that year both of these plazas were raided by the Utes and Navajos, and the survivors fled to places of safety."
  • First legal society, the New York Bar Association, was established in New York City.
  • Ohio Company was formed to extend colonial settlements of Virginia westward. Rivalry for the West, especially for the upper Ohio Valley, increased between France and Great Britain.
  • China began a campaign to pacify the tribes on the Tibetan border.
  • Persia made peace with the Ottoman Empire. Nadir Shah fought rebellious Kurds and is killed by his own officers.
  • July 20 - It was reported, relative to the condition of the Navajo country that, there had been a severe " ... drought in the year 1748. An Indian who resided in the Province of Navajo for over a year arrived in Taos with a story of Navajo loss of crops." It was further reported that the Navajos, who numbered more than 2000, were at war with the Utes, that they held many slaves, and on occasion, visited the Jemez Indians.
  • Indian became a battleground for Great Britain and France, each trying to control Indian trade and to oust the other.
  • Cricket was ruled a legal sport in England.
  • First silk factory was established in Berlin.
  • Excavation began at Pompeii.
  • Leonhard Euler, Swiss Mathematician, related the functions of variables (unknown quantities) in equations.
  • Two of four missions for the Navajo country authorized by the Viceroy in 1746, were established in 1749, one at Encinal, the second at Cebolleta on Saldo Creek. More than 500 Navajos moved to these areas, their willingness to make the change resulting more from Ute and Comanche forays rather than from a desire to accept Christianity or village life.
  • Benjamin Franklin invented the lightning rod and installed one on his Philadelphia home.
  • d'Alembert explained the regular variations in the Earth's orbit.
  • Leibniz's Protogeae, which suggested that the Earth was once composed of molten material, was published, 35 years after his death.
  • A study of chess was published in France.
  • April 16 - Fray Trigo reached Laguna Pueblo on his way to Encinal and was informed that the Navajos of Encinal and Cebolleta had revolted and driven out their padres, Juan de Lezaun and Manuel Vermejo. Councils were held with the Navajos at Cebolleta on this date and at Encinal April 17, at which the Navajos expressed their grievances, stating that they were firmly against being colonized and forced to dwell in pueblos; that they could not " ... stay in one place because they had been raised like deer." They further complained that Fray Juan Miguel de Menchero had not given them the stock and clothing which they had been promised. The missions at Cebolleta and Encinal soon afterwards were abandoned.
  • Edwards was forced to resign from his church in Northampton, Mass., by members of his congregation who opposed his emphasis on the sinful nature of man. Edwards' departure marked the end in New England of "The Great Awakening".
  • The first playhouse in the colonies opened in New York City.
  • Parliament passed the Iron Act of 1750, ordering all colonial finishing plants to close and dropping import taxes on pig iron to encourage the colonists to produce raw iron for finishing in England.
  • German Printer, Johann Breitkopf invented a system of movable musical type.
  • Europe's population reached 140 million.

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URL: /Timeline_Spanish_1700_1750.cfm
Creator(s): Harrison Lapahie Jr.
Dated Created: 01/01/2000
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Updated: 05/02/2010
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