Navajo Timeline

Year Navajo History World History
1657
  • During the administration of Governor Juan de Samaniego y Xaca (1653-1656), after Navajos ambushed Jemez Pueblo, killed 19 of its inhabitants, and took 35 captives, Don Juan Dominguez y Mendoza led a retaliatory expedition i pursuit. "He surprised the Navajos during a native ceremonial, killed several Navajos, imprisoned 211, and released the (35) captives, including a Spanish woman." The captured Navajos no doubt were devided as booty among the soldiers, the usual custom of punitive expeditions. Navajo and Apache slaves were always in demand, and large numbers of them were sold during the 1650's, a practice which contributed to the ever-increasing hostility of the Apache-Navajos.27
  • Quakers arrive in New Amsterdam. They are imprisoned, then freed to go to Rhode Island.
  • Construction began on the monastery of San Francesco at Lima, Peru. Its architecture, with colorful geometric designs on the plaster work, showed the influence of the Spanish Moors.
  • Chocolate, a plant of the Americas, was sold as drinking chocolate in London.
  • Cromwell refused English crown. He set up second legislative chamber and increases his power. England makes alliance with France.
  • Oughtred published Trigonometrica, which dealt with complex trigonometric concepts.
  • Pendulum clock was invented.
   
1658
  • Apaches (Navajos) raided the Zuni pueblos, and the following year they attacked other frontier pueblos. These raids continued with increased frequency during the twenty years of 1660-1680, until the Apache and Navajo menace threatened the security of the entire province.28
  • Police force of 10 men was formed in New Amsterdam. The men are paid about 50 cents a night.
  • French and English defeated the Spanish at the Battle of the Dunes near Dunkirk.
  • Cromwell died, his son was the new Lord Protector. His Army and Parliament struggle for power.
  • Danes successfully defended Copenhagen against the Swedes.
  • First bank note was used by the Swedish state bank.
  • Cristiaan Huygens, Dutch Mathematician and Astronomer, discovered the time-keeping ability of Pendulums.
  • John Swammerdam, Dutch Naturalist and Microscopist, observed and described red blood cells.
   
1659
  • Governor Bernardo Lopez de Mendizabal (1659-1661) dispatched an army of 40 Spaniards and 800 Christian Indians commanded by Captain Juan Dominquez y Mendoza against the Navajos along the San Juan River (known as the Rio Grande at this time) for the purpose of laying waste their fields, destroying their power, and making captives. Many Navajos were killed and many more were captured. When arrested by the Inquisition in 1662, Governor Mendizabal claimed that he owned, or had an interest in, some 90 Apache (Navajo) slaves. According to the formal complaint filed against him by Fray Juan Ramirez, and used before the Audiencia that tried him in 1663 at Guadalajara, Mexico, Lopez had previously sent 70 or 80 Apache (Navajo) captives, both men and women, to be sold for slave labor in the mines of the Real de San Jose del Parral in Mexico. In another complaint against the governor, "His enemies stated that on one occasion, having induced a group of Apache (Navajo) warriors to come to Jemez in peace and friendship, he not only ordered a treacherous attack onthem during which 15 were killed, but also executed a follow-up raid on the camp of the nomads nearby during which 10 men and 30 women and children were captured ... ". Lopez intensified the hostility of the Apaches and Navajos by other acts of treachery. "The cause of the increasing enmity was doubtless resentment against the common practice of seizing Apache and Navajo boys and girls by Spaniards during trading expeditions to the lands of these tribes, in order to impress them into service on the raches or as house servants, and to sell them as slaves in the labor markets of New Spain."29
  • Two Quakers who returned to Massachusetts after having been banished were hanged on Boston Common.
  • Colonist Joseph Jencks, an Ironworker, built the first "Fire Engine", a portable water pump with a self-contained water supply.
  • The first classical elementary school was established in New Amsterdam (present-day New York and New Jersey).
  • France and Spain signed the "Peace of the Pyrenees". This document caused the Spanish border to be set at the Pyrenees Mountains, and France received Roussillon and much of the land in Flanders.
  • The Army forced the new Lord Protector to dissolve Parliament. The Rump Parliament assembled itself, forced the Lord Protector to resign, and re-established the Comonwealth.
  • Huygens discovered the true shape of Saturn's rings.
  • Moliére's first Paris play, Les Précieuses Ridicules, made fun of two provincial young women. Many believed Moliére was satirizing salons such as that of the Marquise de Rambouillet.
   
1660
  • Governor Mendizabal sent another group of Apache-Navajos to Sonora, Mexico, where they were sold for some 1200 pesos. But a recent order of the Audiencia of Guadalajara put an end to this form of slave labor and the captives were freed and the 1200 pesos returned to the purchasers.30
  • The mounting need for a more effective defense against the Apaches and Navajos also led to the creation of two major subdivisions, the Upper and Lower Rio Grande: The Rio Arriba administered and commanded by the Governor, and the Rio Abajo commanded by the Lieutenant Governor.30
  • John Eliot, colonial Missionary, established the first American Indian church in Massachusetts.
  • Wigs came into fashion. The authorities in Massachusetts try to prevent their use.
  • Connecticut required all men to live with their wives. A man separated from his wife for more than 3 years was ordered out of the colony.
  • Massachusetts fined violators 5 shillings for celebrating Christmas.
  • Sweden and Poland signed the "Peace of Oliva". The treaty caused Poland to give up claim to the Swedish throne and cede Livonia to Sweden. Sweden also made peace with Denmark.
  • The Royal Society of London, an organization designed to promote scientific research, was established.
  • Restoration of the monarchy in England. Charles II was restored to the English throne by Parliament. The restoration brought about the re-opening of the theaters and the re-introduction of choral music into the church service, forbidden since 1642, by Cromwell.
  • Virginia Colony proclaimed Charles II, King of England. It restored Sir William Berkeley as Governor. Puritans had ousted him in 1652.
  • Robert Hooke, English Physicist, stated his Law of Elasticity (Hooke's Law).
  • Robert Boyle, Anglo-Irish Scientist, invented an air pump.
  • Issac Barrow, English Mathematician and Theologian, translated ancient Greek mathematical works.
   
1661
  • Captain Diego de Trujillo testified before the Audiencia that the Indians of the Hopi village of Walpi, " ... having captured nine Apaches (Navajos), gave one to their frair and one to him as alcalde mayor (of the Zuni-Hopi jurisdiction), and offered to trade the others for things they could use. He told the Indians that he would have to consult the governor and find out whether (Governor Bernardo) Lopez (de Mendizabal) wished to buy the captives, but the Indians were unwilling to have him do this, for fear of being cheated. On advice from the friar, Trujillo finally bought the Apaches, but reserved three fo the best for the governor in case he should want them. When Lopez was informed of what had been done, he removed Trujillo from office, seized all of the captives, and subjected him to other indignities ... "31
  • The earliest known Spanish inscription on the Navajo Reservation (Nation) is an almost illegible one at Inscription House, Navajo National Monument, Arizona, interepreted variously as:

    Carlos Arnais 1661
    S-haperio Ano Dom 1661
    Shafi 1661 an Dom

    and by others as having been inscribed in 1861 rather than in 1661.32

  • John Eliot's translation of the New Testament into Algonkian was printed by Samuel Green of Cambridge, Mass. It was the first Bible printed in North America.
  • Winthrop was elected as the first American Fellow of the Royal Society of London.
  • Persecution of Quakers ends in Massachusetts.
  • Louis IV, age 18, began personal rule in France following the death of Cardinal Mazarin who had ruled during his minority. Louis was an absolute monarch who ruled without consulting parlement or the Estates General. Following reports about the native chieftains in New France, such as the Natchez leader who was called the Great Sun, Louis designated himself the "Sun King". At a time when Indian tribes had ritual baths or sweat lodges, Louis XIV built Versailles (begun in 1661 with 1300 rooms), the greatest palace in Europe, without any kind of plumbing.
  • Ottoman Empire and Venice were at war.
  • Sweden and Russia signed the "Peace of Kardis", re-establishing status quo.
  • The Cavalier Parliament passed statute to strengthen the Church of England.
  • Marcello Malpighi, Italian Physician and Microscopist, discovered the network of blood vessels that link the small veins and arteries.
  • Boyle disputed the views of Aristotle and Paracelsus on the composition of matter, in his work, The Sceptical Chymist.
   
1662
  • May 12 - In their decision of this date, members of the Audiencia in Santa Fe who tried Governor Bernardo Lopez de Mendizabal, pronounced him guilty of violating the terms of peace with certain Apaches (Navajos) who had come to live at Taos and Jemez. He had ordered all males killed, and their women and children seized in order to sell them as servants.33
  • More than 1500 Quakers are imprisoned in England because they refused to accept the Anglican Church. Many other non-conformists were persecuted and put into prison.
  • Virginia required that children be baptized. If they were not, parents were fined.
  • Printed material was censored in Puritan New England.
  • Winthrop gave complete description of Maize (Indian corn) to the Royal Society of London.
  • France bought Dunkirk from England, and Portugal gave Tangier to England.
  • Charles Le Brun decorated the Gallery of Mirrors at Versailes, near Paris. Le Notre designed the gardens.
  • Population of China was estimated at 100 million.
   
1663
  • May 11 - In testimony taken from Captain Nicolas de Aguilar on this date, he stated that " ... a pact was made with them (the frontier Indians) that they should not pass beyond the pueblos of Humanos and Tavira (the Salinas area), when they come to barter; nor should the enemy of the same nation in the jursidiction of Casa Fuerte and Navajo come, because it is from there that the whole kingdom receives hurt, for they (Navajos and Apaches) are all one people, and it is impossible to tell whether they ae friends or enemies." In late summer of fall of 1663, after being accused of tkaing a crippled girl from Taos, Governor Dionisio de Panalosa Briceno y Berdugo asked why,when it was known that " ... he had so many Apache (Navajo) captives that he gave away more than a hundred!"34
  • 1663-1667 - War between England and the Netherlands known as the Second English-Dutch War. Dutch monopoly of the slave trade assumed by the English.
  • 1663 - King of England gave a royal charter to eight proprietors for the land area known as Carolina (present day Georgia, North and South Carolina). The grant also included the Bahamas. Political philosopher John Locke wrote a constitution which seemed more feudal than the political liberalism he become famous for.
  • Louis XIV's finance minister Colbert dissolved the Company of New France and instead formed the colony of New France with Quebec as its capital and a royal governor. Louis XIV's extravagances led France into greater debt.
   
1664
  • Fray Nicolas Enriquez, in his declarationof May, 1664, at Santa Fe,spoke of the personal visitations " ... which the prelates in the Order were accustomed to make, going to the provinces of Zuni and Moqui. The latter was 100 leagues distant from this custodia (the intervening territory being populated) entirely by heathen enemies, among whom one would travel at manifest danger to his life unless he had an escort of Spanis soldiers and Christian Indians. This risk was well known to the whole kingdom at the time that this declarant set out from the convent of El Penol de Acoma, and was fallenupon by an ambuscade of enemy Indians (Navajos?), who took away from him all that he had, and failed to kill him only because of hte obscurity of the night, which gave himi opportunity for flight ... ".35
  • Maryland law provided for life-long servitude of Negro slaves. Similar laws were passed in other colonies.
  • Colonist, Winthrop, claimed to have discovered a fifth moon of Jupiter.
  • Hooke suggested that Jupiter rotated on an axis.
  • Thomas Willis, English Physician, described the human brain and nervous system.
  • 1664-1667 - As a result of victories in the Second English-Dutch War, Britain annexed all the Netherlands' colonies in Connecticut, Delaware, and New Jersey. The English Duke of York forced Peter Stuyvesant to surrender in New Amsterdam, and he renamed the village for himself as New York. Fort Orange surrendered to Britain and was renamed for the Duke of Albany.
   
1665
  • Governor Dionisio de Penalosa Briceno y Berdugo's map of 1665 shows Apaches (Navajos) located in the vicinity of the Lukachukai Mountains near Canyon de Chelly, on Black Mesa north of the Hopi villages, and north of the San Francisco Mountains (Sierra Azul).36
  • The first American Indians graduated from Harvard College.
  • Sir Isaac Newton discovered the Laws of Gravity, Calculus, and variations in the light spectrum.
  • Great Plague of London began.
  • English defeated the Dutch during sea battle off Lowestoft, England.
  • Portuguese army won a series of victories over Spain.
   
1666
  • Mar 26 - In the spring, Spaniard, Don Juan Dominguez y Medoza, who was then Capitan General and Lieutenant Governor, led a punitive expedition agains the Apaches (Navajos?) in the Acoma area, returning on March 26.37
  • April 20 - Inscription at Steamboat Spring, Arizona, left by a Spaniard, reads:

    A 20 de Abril Ano De 1666
    PODe Montoya In the same vicinity are also a number of more recent inscriptions of a similiar nature.38

  • First Presbyterian Church was established in New Jersey.
  • Great Plague of London was at it height. It killed about 68,000 people.
  • Great Fire of London destroyed St. Paul's Cathedral, and many other churches and buildings. It left 200,000 people homeless.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, English Mathematician and Physicist, invented the reflecting telescope.
  • Italian Antonio Stradivari (Stradivarius), greatest violin maker of all time, produced the first violin bearing his name.
   
1669
  • April 1 - Of Navajo and Apache depredations, Fray Juan Bernal wrote that the province " ... is nearly exhausted from suffering two calamities which were enough to put it out of existence, as it is even now hastening to its ruin. One of these calamities is that the whole land is at war with the widespread heathen nation of Apache Indians, who kill all the Chrisitian Indians they can find and encounter. No road is safe; everyone travels at risk of his life, for the heathens traverse them all, being courageous and brave, ... The second misfortune is that for three years n crops have been harvested. In the past year, 1668, a great many Indians perished of hunger, ... The same calamity still prevails ... " The drought of the late 1660's was followed by a pestilence in 1671 that killed off both people and cattle.39
  • June 16 - Governor Juan de Medrano Messia wrote to Fray JUan de Talaban, the Custodian of the Friars in New Mexico, on this date, that he had " ... just been informed that the Apaches had made a bold attack on the pueblo of Acoma, killing 12 persons, including Captain Don Francisco de Chaves, taking several captives, and seizing 800 sheep and goats, as well as horses and cattle. The danger was the greater, said the governor, because the Apaches and the Salineros (of the Zuni region) had joined those of the Case Fuerte (the Navajos). To counteract these bold attcks, the governor ordered 50 soldiers and 600 Christian Indians to assemble at Jemez on July 2 for the campaign against the hostiles."40
  • A plan of government for Carolina was drawn up. Religious freedom was granted, but a revision in 1670 officially recognized only the Church of England.
  • Mt. Etna erupted in Catania, Italy, killing about 20,000 people.
  • Aurangzeb, Mogul Emperor of India, prohibited the Hindu religion.
  • Outbreak of Cholera in China.
  • Ottoman Turks captured Crete from the Venetians after a 24-year siege.
  • The Académie Royale de Musique was established by Louis XIV.
  • Christopher Wren, English Astronomer, Geometrician, and Architect, was appointed Surveyor of Works to Charles II.
   
1670s
  • During the 1670's "New Mexico had been composed of 46 pueblos of Christian Indians, and the one Spanish town of Santa Fe, with scattered Spanish ranches along the banks of the Rio Grande. In the 1670's the Apaches (and Navajos) forced the abandonment of seven of the 46 pueblos: Hawaikuh, in the province of Zuni; the Tompiros pueblos of Abo, Jumanos and Tavira; the Tewa pueblos of Chilili, Tajique and Quarai.47
  • The Act of Virginia stated that servants who were not Christians before coming to America would be slaves for life. The Act was repealed in 1682.
  • The population in the colonies was estimated at 114,500. Virginia had 40,000 residents.
  • The English Crown chartered the Hudson Bay Company in Canada for trade in America.
  • Russian troops of the Czar crushed the Great Peasant Revolt led by the Don Cossacks.
  • Louis XIV of France signed a private Treaty of Dover with Charles II of England, securing the disruption of the Triple Alliance.
  • Christopher Wren, Surveyor of Works to Charles II, undertook the rebuilding of 51 London churches that were destroyed by the Great Fire of London in 1666.
  • China gave England limited trading rights.
  • The bayonet was invented.
   
1672
  • Oct 7 - "Fray Pedro de Avila y Ayala .. was transferred to the mission field of New Mexico in 1671 and assigned to the Hawikuh mission, which was regarded as a dangerous station by reason of its exposure to the Apache (Navajo)." After 1666, drought and pestilence plagued the province, decimating it of many people and cattle. Crop failures brought on famine, and, in 1668, among the Jumano Pueblos, more than 450 starved to death. " ... thereafter, in the year 1672, the hostile Apaches ... rebelled ... and the ... province was totally sacked and robbed by their attacks and outrages, especially of all the cattle and sheep, of which it previously had been very productive." On October 7, 1672, in a surprise attack, Navajos swept down upon the Zuni village of Hawaikuh, killed many of the inhabitants, burned the church,and with a bell beat out the brains of the resident missionary, Fray Pedro de Avila y Ayala while he clung to a cross. Hawikuh was never occupied again. Skeletal remains, believed to be those of the martyred preist, were exhumed 295 years later, in September 1967, by archaeologists excavating the old Mission Church at Zuni.41
  • Bubonic Plague killed about 60,000 people in Lyon, France, and about 400,000 in Naples, Italy.
  • England and France declared War on the Dutch. The French over-ran southern Netherlands, but the Dutch stopped the French advance on Amsterdam by opening the dikes. The French rejected Dutch peace proposals. William of Orange (later William III of England) became Dutch Captain-General.
  • The Clarendon Press, the official printers of Oxford University, was founded.
  • Hooke discovered the diffraction of light.
  • Newton published a work on light and color.
  • Guericke became the first person to describe electro-luminescence.
   
1675
  • Don Juan Dominguez y Mendoza was commissioned by Governor Juan Francisco de Trevino to lead another campaign against the Navajos across the cordillera of Navajo to Casa Fuerte. At the Pueblo of Zia he was joined by 300 Pueblo Indians. During the campaign 15 Navajos were killed, six Pueblo Indians and a Spanish girl were recovered from captivity, large quantities of Navajo corn destroyed, and 35 Navajos were captured and brought back as slaves.42
  • Massachusetts law required that church doors be locked during services because too many people left before the long sermon was completed.
  • Brandenburg, an ally of the Holy Roman Empire, defeated Swedish forces at the Battle of Fehrbellin.
  • French retreated across the Rhine and suffered defeat at Trier. France made an alliance with Poland.
  • Cassini discovered the space between two of Saturn's rings, now known as Cassini's Division.
  • Leibniz laid the groundwork for the development of modern Calculus.
   
1678
  • July 12 - Governor Antonio de Otermin launched a full scale attack upon the Navajos. With 50 mounted Spanish soldiers, 400 Pueblo Indians allies, and two Ute volunteers, al lcommanded by Juan Dominguez y Mendoza,they left Zia Pueblo " ... to the Cordilleras of Casa Fuerte, Navajo, Rio Grande (San Juan River), and their districts." They succeeded in destroying Navajo crops, capturing 50 men, women and children, rescuing two women held captive, and taking 13 horses.43
  • Nov 26 - In a second campaign led by Juan Dominguez y Mendoza against the Navajos, it was reported that "He burned and destroyed more than 2500 fanegas of maize, and it is public knowledge that he captured the wives and children of the infidel Apache (Navajo) enemies, put to rout an ambush they had prepared on a mesa, burned their settlements, and won many spoils, actions worthy of every reward."44
  • Dec 28 - The Spanish governor reproted that the Navajos, in retaliation for an attack upon them by the Spaniards, had attacked the Pueblo de San Esteban de Acoma, destroyed crops, killed one Indian and attempted to destroy the pueblo and stronghold. As a result, Dominguez again took the field against the Navajos with instructions " ... to march from the plaza de armasof the pueblo of Sia ... to the said cordilleras fo the west, of Casa Fuerte, Navajo, Penoles, and other places which may seem necessary ... ". Results of this campaign are not known.45
  • John Bunyan, English Preacher, published Pilgrim's Progress, an allegory about a Christian's life and struggles.
  • False "Popish Plot" to murder King Charles II and establish Roman Catholicism in England resulted in a wave of anti-Catholic hatred with executions of innocent people.
  • France signed peace Treaties of Nijmegen with the Netherlands and Spain. The Dutch get all lands back. The French got Franche-Comté and border towns in return for evacuating the Spanish Netherlands.
  • Isagoge Phytoscopia, by German Philosopher Joachim Jungius, sets new standards for describing and classifying plants.
  • Hooke described planetary motion using the Inverse Square Law.
  • Giovanni Ceva, Italian Mathematician, published Concerning Straigh Lines.
   
1679
  • May 10 - In Fray Francisco de Ayeta's accounts, he stated that the Province of New Mexico was " ... in danger of ruin through the constant hostilities fo the Chichimecos of the Apache (Navajo) nation and the confederation of the rest of the heather Indians." In the summer of 1679, a pincer movement was planned against the Navajos. From Taos, Maestre de Campo Francisco Xavier led a force westward to join and cooperate with a force led by Juan Dominguez y Mendoza, which started westward from Zia Pueblo. Results of the campaign are unknown.46
  • France signed Treaties of Nijmegen with the Holy Roman Emperor, Sweden, and Denmark. Sweden made peace with the Netherlands, Brandenburg, and Denmark.
  • Habeas Corpus Act in England established protection against unlawful imprisonment of persons.
  • Japanese poet, Matsuo Basho, wrote verses in a new Haiku style, greatly enriching that form.
  • Italian Composes, Alessandro Scarlatti, produced the first Opera. He is a key figure in the development of the Opera form.
  • Denis Papin, French Physicist, invented the pressure cooker.
  • Leibniz established the advanced mathematical field of Topology.
   
1680
  • Aug 10 - The first Pueblo Rebellion known as the most successful Indian uprising against the white man is led by Pope, a Tewa Medicine Man. Three hundred and eighty Spaniards and Mexican Indians and 21 priests were killed. All the Spanish (Governor Antonio de Otermin and 1,946 others) are driven out of Nuevo Mexico and seek refuge in El Paso, Tejas. By October, not a single Spaniard remained in Nuevo Mexico, except for captives taken earlier. Of the 1,946 who left, at least 500 were servants, including Pueblo Indians, Apaches and Navajos. Some Spanish women were retained as captives by the insurrectionists. The Navajos were sympathetic to the Pueblos' cause and some allied themselves with them against the Spaniards. The revolt causes some migration of Pueblos to Navajo settlements. Twelve years later many Pueblo Indians, fearing the wrath of Don Diego de Vargas and his army of reconquest, fled to join Navajos living in the Dinetaa or Navajo Country, northwestern New Mexico.
  • After the revolt, Kisakobi (the old Hopi village of Walpi on the lower terrace among the foothills on the northwest side of the mesa) was abandoned because of the fear of Spanish vengence and continual raids by the Navajos, Apaches, and Utes. Modern Walpi, the 'place of the gap', was founded at its present location on top of the mesa.
  • The big herd of horses that the Spanish left behind starts to spread across the west and are traded from one tribe to the next. By the early 1700s, virtually every tribe had them.
  • Navajos learn the Pueblo weaving technique, and start developing a style of their own.
  • The population in the colonies was estimated at 155,000.
  • The French plan a colonial empire stretching from Quebec to the mouth of the Mississippi River.
  • Louis XIV of France, now at the height of his power, sets up the Chambers of Reunion to find legal French claims on various towns, which he promptly annexed.
  • Swedish Parliament passed a law repossessing crown lands from the nobles.
  • In London, William Dockwra, sets up the "Penny Post". For the first time, letters were pre-paid and stamped, showing where they were posted and the time they were sent out.
  • English Organist and Composer, John Blow, began Venus and Adonis, the first English Opera.
  • Thomas Brattle, Merchant, contributed his observations on Comets to Newton's Principia.
  • Leeuwenhoek studied the composition of Yeast.
   
1686
  • Navajo, at war with the Havasupai Indians west of the Hopis, were of sufficient force to subdue that tribe. In 1868, the Havasupais, or Cosninos as they were then called, were " ... sorely pressed by the Navajos." Bandelier maintains that the Havasupais' retreat into the gorge of the Colorado River where they presently live, was more likely to have been occasioned by the pressure exercised over them by the Navajos, than by " ... any imagined panic created by the appeareance of Spaniards in small numbers and at rare intervals." Sixty three tree ring dates ranging from 1709+incG to 1798incG, from hogans and other Navajo structures west of the Little Colorado River, corroborate Navajo setlement there following their subjugation of the Havasupais.
  • England establshed a Dominion of New England, including New York, New Jersey, and Pennsyvania. It was governed by Sir Edmund Andros. Harsh ruiling by Andros caused much colonial dissent.
  • Austrians captured Budapest from the Turks. Russia declared War on the Ottoman Empire.
  • Louis XIV of France proclaimed the annexation of Madagascar.
  • The Holy Roman Emperor with various German states and with Sweden, formed the League of Augsburg, opposing French expansion.
  • Edmund Halley published the first weather chart.
  • Leibniz, German Philosopher, published Discourse on Metaphysics.
   
1692
to
1696
  • The Spanish reconquer Nuevo Mexico after the Second Pueblo Revolt. Many Pueblo refugees seek solace in the mountains and among the small bands of Navajos and Apaches on the northern Arizona and new Mexico borders. Many other pueblos were destroyed or abandoned. Only 19 of more than 60 pre-revolt Rio Grande villages survived. Anti-Spanish feeling was so strong that in 1700 when the Hopi pueblo of Awatovi chose to accept a Catholic mission at Awatovi, the other Hopi pueblos retaliated sacking Awatovi and killing all male inhabitants. When the Spanish came back to the Pueblos they did not reintroduce the "encomienda" system. However, the Pueblos still lived under constant encroachment by the Spanish for forced labor, tribute, and religious suppression.
 
   
1692
  • Sept 14 - Governor Don diego de Vargas was informed that the principal lead of the Pueblos in the Santa Fe district, Don Luis Tapatu, " ... had gone to see the Navajo Apaches ... ". At Jemez, de Vargas found many Navajos, but Apache-Navajo attacks on the Zunis had reduced their five pueblos to only one.
  • Nov 11 - Arriving at Zuni, de Vargas found that the Zuni Indians had retired to the summit of the Penol de Caquima, or Corn Mountain, where they were living to protect themselves from Navajo attack. Sending a messenger on to Acoma with a plea that the Indians of the Pueblo return to their old allegiance, the Acomas replied " ... that for the present they were very much afraid because they had stood alone, having as friends only the Navajo Apaches ... "
  • Nov 19 - The Navajos warned the Hopi Indians of the approach of Govenor de Vargas, telling them that they " ... would all be killed and their women and children would be carried off ... " by the Spaniards. On November 19, de Vargas and his army of reconquest arrived at the Hopi town of Awatobi having left Zuni a few days earlier. The Hopis, although having been advised by the Navajos not to trust the Spaniards, came out 700 or 800 strong with a hostile attitude, but Chief Miguel and the Hopis required but little persuasion, as the Spanish invaders were ceremoniously welcomed the following day. Eight years later, during the year 1700, Awatobi was attacked and destroyed by Hopis from the Mesas for having allowed Spanish priests to return there.
  • Witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts, ended with 14 women, 5 men, 2 dogs, and a cat being condemned to death by hanging. The judge, Samuel Sewall, went on to become Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Court. These trials were the New World expression of the witchcraft hysteria that had spread across Europe in the preceeding 2 centuries.
  • Maryland officially recognized the Church of England.
  • English and Dutch defeated the French fleet at La Hogue.
  • The Macdonald clan is massacred at Glencoe, Scotland, for allegedly failing to take an oath to King William III.
  • English Playwright, Nahum Tate, was named Poet Laureate. He was best known for Hymns such as "While sheperds watched their flocks by night".
   
1693
  • Jan 12 - Govenor de Vargas recommended that near the Pueblo of Santa Ana a settlement be located " ... to close the way to the enemy Apache (Navajos) ... ". In 1693, Navajos were friendly towards the Pueblos of Zia, Santa Ana, and Jemez. during the same year Bartholome de Ojeda, Captain of the Pueblo of Zia, informed de Vargas " ... that the Jemez and their neighbors the Navajos were about to join forces with the hostile Keres on the mesa of Cochiti, ... ". In his letter to the King describing the reconquest, de Vargas stated that when he approached the Hopi village of Walpi and met Chief Antonio in te Polacca Valley, the Hopi Chief was supported by Utes, Havasupais, and Apache-Navajos.
  • Dec 8 - Some of the Pueblo Indians felt that now that the Spaniards had returned to New Mexico they, the Pueblos, could hunt deer and plant their crops without fear of the Navajos, who only a week before had murdered a boy and stolen some horses.
  • In Catania, Italy, an earthquake killed 60,000 people.
  • French defeated the English fleet off Lagos, Portugal.
  • National debts began in England.
  • Locke published Some Thoughts Concerning Education, in which he stressed teaching through practice rather than by memorization of rules.
  • Ray's Synopsis of Quadrupeds, an important work on the Taxonomy (Classification) of animals, was published.
  • Cassini published three rules, known as Cassini's Laws, concerning the Moon's rotation.
   
1694
  • July 21 - After unsuccessfully attempting to storm the Black Mesa of San Ildefonso Pueblo, Govenor de Vargas turned towards Jemez to chastize that Pueblo. On his way there he received a message that on this date the Jemez Indians with the Navajos, in a surprise attack against the Pueblo of Zia, had killed 4 of its inhabitants, but were repulsed, the Zias killing one of the Jemez Captains. De Vargas later attacked the Jemez who had abandoned their village and taken refuge on a mesa to the north. He killed 84 and took 361 prisoners. Setting fire to their villages, he then returned to Santa Fe.
  • The Navajos, accustomed to make long journeys to Quivira, frequently fought the French and Pawnees, in alliance at that time, and brought the spoil to trade in New Mexico. On one occasion in 1694, they returned with some captive children whom they beheaded after the Spanish had refused to ransom them.
  • July 26 - A wounded War Captain of Santo Domigo Pueblo, hiding on a mesa top, was captured by the Spaniards. He reported that the Pueblo Indians had gone to Taos, Cochiti and a few to the Navajos to escape the Spaniards. His life was spared when he agreed to reveal where the Santo Domingos' caches of corn were hidden.
  • Samuel Willard's election sermon, The Character of a Good Ruler, is published in Boston. It demonstrates that politics, religion, and literature were closely related in colonial times.
  • The Bank of England was founded by a company of Merchants, who, in return for banking privileges, lend the government L1,200,000.
  • French towns of Dieppe, Le Havre, and Dunkirk are heavilly bombarded by English and Dutch navies.
  • Japnese Poet, Basho, published The Narrow Road to the Deep North, a sensitively written account of his travels in northern Japan.
  • Reinhard Keiser becomes Principal Composer to the Hamburg Opera. He produced 116 Operas in the next 40 years.
  • Rudolph Camerarius, German Botanist, proves that plants have sexes.
   
1696
  • The Jemez Indians, aided by the Acomas, Zunis, Hopis, and Apache-Navajos, staged a second revolt against the Spaniards killing 5 missionaries, including their own priest, Fray Francisco de Jesus Casanas, and 21 other Spaniards. The revolt was unsuccessful, however, the insurrectionists were defeated decisively by Captain Miguel de Lara and Don Fernando Duran de Chavez in the battle of San Diego Canyon, June 29, 1696, and as a result, " ... more than 2000 Indians perished in the mountains, while as many more deserted their villages and joined the wild tribes, ... " including the Navajos, where they fled to escape the wrath of the Spaniards.
  • The French successfully hold Quebec against attacks by the English and Iroquois.
  • Czar Peter I of Russia captured Azov from the Turks.
  • A plot to murder William III of England was discovered, and the conspirators were executed.
   
1697
  • August - On Don Diego de Vargas' second expediton to Acoma, he felt great uneasiness due to the proximity of the Apaches: "In view of the nearness of the Apaches (Navajos) whom I am expecting hourly ... " and who were allies of the Acomas, he did not attack the Penol. the Acomas would " ... resort usually to the settlements of the Apaches (Navajos) for supplies."
  • " ... the Navajos made another of their customary expeditions to the east. The French and Pawnees, however, destroyed, so it was reported, 4000 of the invaders." Padre Juan Armando Niel wrote " ... that among the captives whom the Navajos were accustomed to bring to New Mexico each year for Christian ransom, he rescued two little French girls."
  • Massachusetts law provided that anyone denying the divine nature of the Bible can be imprisoned for 6 months, confined to a pillory, whipped, or have his tongue bored through with a hot iron.
  • France signed the Treaty of Ryswick with England, Spain, and the Netherlands, ending the War of the Grand Alliance. France lost most of her conquests made since 1679.
  • Imperial forces defeated the Turkish army at the Battle of Zenta.
  • China gained control of Outer Mongolia.
  • Charles Perrault, French Storyteller and Poet, published Contes de ma mére I'oye (Tales of Mother Goose), a collection of fairy tales and folk tales for children.
   
1698
  • The Navajos returned to the Pawnee country " ... for vengeance and annihilated three Pawnee rancherias and a fortified place."
  • Colonies offered prizes of tobacco to the colonists who produced the best linen.
  • Czar Peter I suppressed a revolt of the streltsy (soldiers of the Moscow garrison). He prepared for war with Sweden, hoping to gain possession of the Baltic coast.
   
1699
  • Navajos appeared at the Spanish fair laden with spoils: slaves, jewels, cannons, carbines, powder flasks, gamellas, sword belts, waistcoasts, shoes, and even small pots of brass.
  • Connecticut exempts the New Haven Ironworks from taxes for seven years. Such financial inducements were becoming common and did much to stimulate increased industrialization in the colonies.
  • Persecution of Huguenots in France Lessens.
  • Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Karlowitz with Austria, Poland, and Venice. Hungary, Croatia, and Slavonia were ceded to Austria. Podolia passed to Poland. Morea and most of Dalmatia passed to Venice.

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