Navajo Timeline

Year Navajo History World History
1600
  • Spanish kidnapped Apaches, Navajos, and Utes who lived near Spanish colonies in New Mexico to use as slave labor or household servants. The Spanish governors also sold kidnapped Apaches and Navajos to the silver mining camps in the south. They used Pueblo warriors on their slave raiding forays to capture other Indians. Since Spanish law forbade Indians from riding horses, the Pueblo men were recognizable because they were on foot. The Navajos got their name from the Spanish who called them "Apaches Du Nabahu" (Apaches of the Cultivated Fields), where "Apache" (Enemy) comes from the Zuni Indian language and "Nabahu" (the large area of cultivated land) comes from the Tewa Indian language. The source of the resentment between Navajos and Apaches on the one hand and Pueblo peoples on the other stems from the actions of different Pueblo warriors in the service of Spanish governors, Spanish kidnapping, particularly of Navajos, continued until the early 1900s. The U.S. government built on these long standing hostilities by later using Navajo policemen against the Hopi in the early 1900s.
  • Ieyasu defeats rival Japanese Lords at the Battle of Sekigahara. He establishes Japan's military Capitol at Edo (now Tokyo).
  • Shakespeare writes Hamlet and The Merry Wives of Windsor.
  • Hieronymus Fabricius, Italian Scientist, publishes an exhaustive study of Embryology, in which the Larynx is established as the human vocal organ.
  • William Gilbert, English Physician, publishes Concerning Magnetism, which explains how a compass works.
  • English East India Company is founded to carry on spice trade with Asia.
  • India's population reaches 100 million Indians.
   
1608
  • Mar 6 - The first site selected by Don Juan de Ońate and his Spanish colonists around 1600, was San Gabriel del Yunque which was located between the Chama and the Rio Grande Rivers near Santa Clara Pueblo, " ... at the entrance to the Navajo country ... early in 1608 Father Lázaro Ximénez informed the viceroy that the Spaniards and Christian Indians of New Mexico were regularly harassed by the Apaches who destroyed and burned the pueblos, waylaid and killed the natives, and stole the horses of the Spaniards. He asked that the governor be required to keep some soldiers in the field for the defense and security of the land, as there was much grumbling among the natives ... ". The Viceroy, Don Luis de Velasco of Mexico, on March 6 1608, ordered the Governor of New Mexico to send out patrols to end such outrages and to defend the friendly natives. "The destructiveness of the Indian raids soon forced them (Spaniards) to abandon the settlement (of San Gabriel dle Yunque) and move to a more secure location, where Santa Fe was founded ... the abandonment of San Gabriel and the founding of Santa Fe were owing to the raids of the Navajo."9
  • John Smith asked Powhatan for his submission to the English Crown and to provide the settlers with an annual tribute of corn.
  • Captain John Smith's written account of the Virginia colony is considered the first American book. The work was printed in London.
  • The Iroquois nation welcomes Samuel de Champlain and agreed to a French trading post on the site of the former Iroquois village of Stadacona. The site would be later known to the French as Quebec and Samuel de Champlain will be given credit for the founding of Quebec for France. The Iroquois village of Hochelaga would later become the site of Montreal.
  • Shakespeare writes Pericles.
  • Monteverdi's opera Arianna is an immense success.
  • German cities and states form Protestant Union to defend their lands, persons, and rights against any re-establishment of Roman Catholicism.
  • Matthias forces his brother, Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, to cede Hungary, Austria, and Moravia to him.
  • Hans Lippershey, Dutch Optician, invents the Telescope.
  • Checks, or cash letters, are first used in Holland.
  • First recorded use of forks in Italy.
   
1609
  • The Spanish Crown gave land grants around Santa Fe and encouraged the establishment of Catholic missions in the pueblos. Ongoing wars between the Spanish, the Pueblo peoples, and the Navajo continued. The Spanish encouraged active slave trade, particularly in Navajo women and children. The practice continued until the early 1900s.
  • Mar 30 - The Viceroy's instructions to New Mexico's newly appointed Governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, included: "Some villages and tribes are on the frontiers and lands fothe Apaches (Navajos) who are usually protectors or hosts of enemies and among whom are the planners and plotters against the entire country and from which they issue to do damage and make war." Peralta's immediate task on becoming Governor was to reorganize the defenses of the province.10
  • Sept 28 - Spanish colonist at the first Spanish settlement in New Mexico, San Gabriel del Yunque, located between the Rio Grande and Chama Rivers, were ordered to remain at the site after they petitioned the Viceroy to permit them to return to New Spain (Mexico) because the harassing raids and constant thefts of their livestock by Navajos made life too hazardous for them. The settlement, however, was abandoned a short time later and moved to a more secure location where Santa Fe was founded.11
  • The Governor's Palace at Santa Fe is built. Spain declares Santa Fe the new Capital of the Province of New Mexico. The Governor's Palace is the oldest surviving non-Indian building in the U.S., it combines Spanish and Pueblo architectural styles.
  • In Italy, Galileo perfected an astronomical telescope invented earlier in the Netherlands. His observance of the moon showed it not to be perfectly spherical and smooth as the Catholic Church doctrine had proclaimed, but had craters.
  • Duke of Bavaria forms Catholic League to oppose Protestant Union formed in 1608.
  • Moriscos (Moors converted to Christianity) are expelled from Spain.
  • Shakespear writes Cymbeline
  • Thomas Ravenscroft, English Composer, publishes the song, "Three Blind Mice".
  • Johan Kepler, German Astronomer, discovered the elliptical orbit of Mars. It disputes the dogma of the Catholic Church which, at the time, believed that all heavenly bodies rotated around the earth in a perfectly circular fashion, and that all planets, were with out blemish (craters).
  • Tea is shipped from China to Europe by the Dutch East India Company.
   
1610
     
  • Jan - Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and the planet Jupiter had changed the order of the universe. Spyglasses and magnifying devices had become popular during this time. Duplicating one such instrument in 1609, Galileo had painstakingly fashioned wood and leather into a tube into which he set one concave and one convex glass lens. The result was a refracting telescope with three-power (3x) magnification. Later models would boast 9x, 20x, and eventually 30x magnification.
        When Galileo turned his primitive instrument toward the sky, the universe revealed its wonders. The Moon, long thought to be a smooth-surfaced body, appeared pockmarked with mountains and craters. The creamy glow of the Milky Way burst into untold separate stars. The Sun, believed to be a flawless object, could be seen to have spots, whose changing positions suggested that it rotated.
        The most amazing and controversial body viewed through this device was Jupiter, shining brilliantly in Taurus. Galileo's observations revealed that this body was a round disk, not merely a point of light.
        All was breath-taking and incredible but incomplete until on January 7, 1610, Galileo discovered three "stars" alongside Jupiter. Within a week, he had observed the trio change positions, spotted yet another star, and realized that these stars (later determined to be moons) orbited the Giant Planet!
        This astounding news contradicted Catholic Church doctrine, which insisted that Earth was the center of the universe, and all planets and stars revolved around it. Certain that proof would trump perception, Galileo invited some priests to peer through the lens.
        The clergymen realized what their fate would be if they admitted the obvious, so they looked then lied. "Yes, there it is," Galileo exclaimed, "Jupiter, with the little moons around it. Look again!" "No," each priest shrugged in turn. "I can not see a thing."
        Despite overwhelming resistance from the Church, Galileo bravely published his startling discoveries. Instead of being cheered, he was jeered. Church officials denounced him to a Roman Inquisition early in 1615, and then a papal trial in 1933, on suspicion of heresy. Galileo was detained, forced to recant (or be burned at the stake) his heliocentrism (which placed the Sun at the center of the universe) as "false and contrary to Scripture", and was placed under permanent house arrest, where he eventually died on January 8, 1642, penniless.
        After recanting his theory that the Earth moved around the Sun, Galileo allegedly muttered the phrase "And yet it moves".
   
1620
  • Pilgrims on the Mayflower land at Plymouth Rock on December 21, 1620. The first words they hear were "Welcome Englishmen" by Samoset, an Abenaki Indian, who greeted them as the Pilgrims made it ashore. By the spring of 1921, 50 of the 102 colonist had died from scurvy, pneumonia, or tuberculosis.
  • A group of English religious separatist living in Leiden, Holland, decided to go to the New World to start a new religious community. Unlike the Jamestown colonist, whose purpose was economic, the Leiden colonists wanted to create a Christian community. Known as Pilgrims, they obtained a land patent from the London Company and set out for what should have been northern Virginia. They began in the Powhatan lands. The problem of labor was solved by importing African slaves.
   
1621
  • Spanish Governor gave ranchers in New Mexico permission to employ Pueblo men on horseback. The "encomienda" system brought new Spanish settlers into bitter conflict with the Church over control on Indian labor. When Pueblo men on horseback escaped, horses escaped with them. The Apaches and Navajos are the first Indian tribes in North America to acquire horses by stealing them from the Pueblos and learn to fight on horseback. As the use of horses spread, the Apaches and Navajos became raiders against Spanish settlements and Pueblo towns.
  • Plymouth Colony makes a treaty with Massasoit, Chief of the Wampanoag Indians. Peace is kept for nearly 20 years.
  • Gov. William Bradford of Plymouth Colony is shocked to find newcomers to the settlement playing games in the street on Christmas day. He stops the games by taking their equipment.
  • Pilgrims celebrate their first year in the New World.
  • First American blast furnace for processing iron is established at Falling Creek, Virginia.
  • The Dutch chartered the Dutch West India Company and gave it a monopoly of trade in Africa and America.
  • Protestant Union in Germany is dissolved. Thirty Years' War moves from Bohemia to Palatinate in Germany
  • Spain resumes war with Holland, breaking Twelve Years' Truce.
   
1622
  • During the first quarter of the seventeenth century,the Navajo-Apaches raided the Pueblo of Santa Clara and made war upon them. In 1622, the Jemez villages of Giusewa and Patoqua were abandoned because of Navajo raids, and the people scattered, but five years later Fray Martín de Arvide gathered the inhabitants together and resettled both of the abandoned villages.12.
  • Richelieu is made cardinal and puts down Protestant uprising in France.
  • Parliament rebukes James I of England for meddling in affairs of the state. James dissolves Parliament.
  • Catholic League with Imperial forces defeats revolutionary forces in the Palatinate.
  • Pope Gregory XV founds the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith to promote missions. This is the beginning of the modern missionary activity of the Catholic Church.
  • The Banqueting House at Whitehall is completed. It is considered the greatest achievement of Inigo Jones.
  • Marie de' Medici commissions Rubens to do a series of paintings for the galleries of the Luxembourg Palace in Paris.
  • Mourt's Relation compiled by George Morton from notes and memoranda of William Bradford and Edward Winslow, contains the first published first hand account of the voyage of the Mayflower and the landing at Plymouth.
   
1626
  • The first known documentary reference to Navajos (from the Tewa word Navahú, meaning large area of cultivated lands) as such was in 1626. During the Spanish and Mexican periods, Navajos were referred to as "Apaches", "Apache-Navajos",or "Apaches de Navajo" more frequently than not. This occurred also during the American period beginning in 1846 to some extent. Fray Gerónimo de Zárate-Salerón, who went to Jemez as missionary in 1622, and established the mission of San José at the puebo of Giusewa, in his Relación of events in California and New Mexico from 1538 to 1626 wrote that one only had to " ... go out by way of the river Zama (Chama); and that past the nation of the Apache Indians of Navajú there is a very great river (the Colorado or Buena-Esperanza) ... And that all was plain with good grasses and fields between the north and northwest; that it was fertile land, good and level, ... ". The river sufficed for a guide.13.
  • Peter Minuit with new Dutch colonists arrives at New Amsterdam and builds 30 houses. He buys Manhattan Island, at present-day New York, from the manhattan American Indians for trinkets worth $24.
  • Imperial army of Emperor Ferdinand II defeats Protestant forces at Dessau and helps Catholic League defeat Danish king at Lutter.
  • Cardinal Richelieu concentrates all royal and political power in France in his hands.
  • An edict is published in France condemning to death anyone who kills an opponent in a duel.
  • Order of the Sisters of Mercy is founded in France.
  • Plymouth colony passes first conservation laws limiting the cutting and sale of colonial lumber. Plymouth requires the approval of the Governor and the Council to sell or transport lumber out of the colony.
   
1629
  • Aug 20 - The Hopis learned from an apostate Indian from the Christianized Pueblos that a group of Franciscan Monks were approaching their villages for the purpose, they were told, " ... to burn their pueblos, rob their belongings and behead their children; and that the others with crowns and robes were so many deceivers, and that they must not consent that they should put water on their heads, because at once they would be sure to die. This news so disturbed (alteraron) the Moquinos that they secretly summoned in their favor the neighboring Apaches (Navajos), with whom at that time they had truce ... ". Hopi traditon holds that the Navajos summoned occupied lands west of Oraibi. The three Franciscans, Francisco Porras, Andrés Gutierrez, and Cristóbal de la Concepción, a lay brother, arrived at the Hopi village of Awatovi on August 20, 1629. According to Fray Estévan de Perea, "In this time the Apaches ... - the fiercest and most valorous Nation that is known is those parts (he had previously been referring to Zuni); so extended that it is spread around the whole of New Mexico - have come to ask for peace with the Christian Indians, and Spaniards; ... "14.
  • First ordained Minister and first non-Separatist Congregational Church are established in Salem, Mass.
  • Dutch West Indian Co. grants special rights to rich persons willing to transport colonists to New Netherlands (now New York and New Jersey). Much land is granted along the Hudson, Connecticut, and Delaware rivers.
  • Parliament is dissolved, Charles I of England rules without it for 11 years.
  • Emperor Ferdinand II issues the Edict of Restitution, ordering restoration of churchlands secularized since 1552.
  • Peace of Lubeck between Holy Roman Empire and Denmark assures Ferdinand II that the Danes will not interfere in Germany.
  • Peace of Alais ends political power of Huguenots but assures them religious toleration.
  • John Milton, giant of English literature, writes his first great poem, "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity".
   
1630
  • In his Memorial of 1630, Fray Alonso de Benavides referred to the Navajos as "very great farmers (labradoes), for that (is what) 'Navajo' signifies - 'great planted fields' (sementeras grandes)." Thereafter, and in his Revised Memorial of 1634, Benavides referred to them as Navajo Apaches, or merely as Apaches. Fray Benavides described the Navajo province as extending westward from the Rio Grande for 300 leagues (1 league = approx. 2.5 miles), which, granting the paucity of geographical knowledge at the time, is somewhat of an exaggeration, placing their western boundary well beyond, or west of the Colorado River. In writing of the "Conversion of the Navajo-Apaches," Benavides' tendency towards amplification is again reflected, especially with regard to Navajo population: "Starting, then from this province of the Xila Apaches, which extends for more than fifty leagues along the frontier of the pueblos of New Mexico toward the west, we reach the magnificent province and tribe of the Navajo Apaches. It must be noted that we are speaking of the people of that nation which is on the frontier of the settlements of New Mexico, and although the population around here is innumerable, it becomes greater as we go toward the center of their land, which extends so far in all directions that, as I say, it alone is vaster than all the others. Thus, all those fifty leagues from Xila up to this Navajo Nation are settled with rancherías, and the territory of the latter extends for another fifty leagues of frontier. There the population is so dense that iin less than eight days, on one occasion, they assembled more than thirty thousand to go to war, for they are a very bellicose people. This is a very conservative estimate, because the sargento mayor of the Spanish soldiers told me that once when he had fought them in a war he had seen more than two hundred thousand, as near as he could estimate. In journeying westward through this nation, one never reaches the end of it. The whole land is teeming with people. To bring about their conversion, I went to live in a pueblo called Capoo, dedicated to Santa Clara. It lies on the opposite bank of the river, on the frontier of the Christian Indians of the Teoas (Tewa) nation, where the Apaches (de Navajo) killed people every day and waged war on them ... ". After some discourse relating to the conversion of the Navajos, and to impress the Crown with the possibilities, Benavides added: "This nation alone has more than two hundred thousand souls belonging to this tribe of the Navajo" - at that time a fantastic exaggeration. Benavides, after making peace with the Navajo Captain at Santa Clara, stated that the people of the pueblos could now go safely into the countryside where formerly they were in danger of attack by Navajos a quarter of a league from the pueblo..15 After 1630, " ... Spanish officials of New Mexico forced Pueblo Indians to assist them in slave raids against the Navajo, ... Hundreds of Navajo were sold into slavery in the mining regions of Chihuahua, ... "16
  • 1630-1642 - The Great Migration from England to Massachusetts. Over 16,000 English settlers left England for the Bay Colony because of discontent with the Anglican church or government of Charles I.
  • 1630 - Massachusetts Bay Colony founded, with 1,000 colonists arriving in 17 ships from England. Ten years after the Pilgrims had arrived in Plymouth, the Puritans, led by John Winthrop, received a charter from the Crown to settle the area known as Massachusetts Bay. Believing that it was their mission from God to found a perfect Christian society, a "City on the Hill", they formed a covenant among themselves to live a perfect Christian life. The colony functioned as a theocracy. One of the most powerful men of the colony was minister Cotton Mather. His view of the native inhabitants, which prevailed, was that they were the "accursed seed of Canaan" sent by Satan. He believed that the epidemic diseases which ravaged the Indians were God's way of killing Satan's children and clearing the land for His true children, the English.
  • John Winthrop, first Governor of Mass. Bay Colony, begins a detailed journal which he keeps until his death. It is a prime source of information about life in early New England.
  • William Bradford begins Histgory of Plymouth Plantation, the first account of a Puritan settlement in New England.
  • First church was founded in Boston.
  • Population in the colonies is estimated at 5,700.
  • First criminal executed in the colonies was hanged for murder.
  • Swedish forces under Gustavus II invade Germany to support the Protestant cause and to gain control of the Baltic coast.
  • Cardinal Richelieu crushes plot by Marie de' Medici to regain control in France.
  • Peter Chamberlen, English Surgeon, invents forceps for use in childbirth.
  • Cribbage, a card game invented by Engish Poet, Sir John Suckling, is first play in England.
  • Beginning of public advertising in Paris.
  • Inigo Jones designs Covent Garden, London's first residential square. This is an early example of urban design.
   
1638
  • In the "Description de l'Amerique ... " published in Amsterdam in 1638, on Map 1 there is a reference to the Apaches de Navajo."17 During the 1630's Apache (Navajo) depredations became a matter of grave concern in the province of New Mexico, and by 1638, the friars i the frontier pueblos reported that they and their charges were subject to constant Apache (Navajo) attacks.18.
  • Beginning of Great Peace in Japan (1638-1864). Under the military shoguns the capital was moved from Kyoto to Edo (Tokyo). Power of the Buddhist establishment was curbed by the emergence of a military autocracy (samurai), and a four-class social system (warrior, farmer, artisan, merchant), took hold. The shoguns outlawed travel abroad, and foreigners were excluded from Japan. The policy remained in effect for two centuries.
  • The English Puritans established the first Indian reservation in Connecticut.
   
1639
  • Feb 12 - Francisco de Baeza, Governor of New Mexico 1635-37, wrote: "There are perhaps in the entire (province) and its settlements 200 persons, Spaniards and mestizos, who are able to bear arms, as they do in defense of the converted INdians, who frequently suffer injuries from the neighboring Apaches (Navajos). These are warlike and, as barbarians, make unexpected attacks upon them. To their defense the governors and (Spanish) inhabitants repair, punishing the Apaches severly. As a result the Apaches restrain themselves and the converted Indians are saved, for the Apaches see that the Spaniards defend them and that those are punished who disturb them."19.
  • Feb 21 - The Cabildo of Santa Fe reported to the Viceroy that Fray Diego de San Lucas had been killed at Jemez by Navajos. The slain priest was succeeded by Fray Juan del Campo.20
  • A woman of Plymouth, Mass., convicted of adultery was sentenced to be whipped and to wear a badge with the letters "AD" on her left sleeve. If found in public without the badge, she was to be branded on the face with a hot iron.
  • First colonial printing press was established at Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass.
  • Connecticut Colony adopted the Fundamental Orders, one of the first written legal documents in the New World.
  • First Bishops' War in Scotland ended without fighting by the Pacification of Berwick. Charles I of England accepts Scottish right to a free church assembly and a free parliament.
  • Jeremiah Horrocks, English Astronomer, became the first person to observe a transit of Venice.
  • Girard Desargues, French Mathematician, published, An Attempt to Deal With the Events of the Meeting of a Cone With a Plane, in which he introduced the Desargues Theorem for Conic Sections.
1640
  • During this " ... tragic year a pest spread among the Indians, taking a toll of 3000 persons, or more than ten percent of the total Pueblo population. The Apaches (Navajos) also seized the opportunity offered by the bitter factional rivalries to raid the Pueblo area, burning and pillaging. The amount of maize that was burned was estimated at 20,000 fanegas ... "21
  • Beginning about 1640 " ... conspiracies between the Navajo and Pueblo tribes for the overthrow of the Spaniards became frequent, and on some occasions Pueblo herders surrendered entire horseherds to their allies ... Navajo hostility made the journey tothe distant Zuni and Hopi pueblos a perilous one, and was an important factor in the failure of the Spaniards to bring those tribes under complete domination." Spanish authorities further provoked the Navajos and Apaches by sending out expeditions among them to seize captives to sell as slaves in the marketsof New Spain22
  • Log cabins, introduced from Sweden, were built in Swedish settlements on the Delaware River. After about 1700 they became common frontier dwellings.
  • Scots invaded England in Second Bishops' War and defeated the English at Newburn-on-Tyne. Charles I made peace at Ripon. His promise to pay the Scottish army L850 a day forced him to call Parliament.
  • Portugal revolted and became independent from Spanish rule.
  • Blaise Pascal, French Mathematician, published a work on Conic Sections.
  • Desargues published work on stone-cutting.
  • Rembrandt painted one of his most famous works, "Self-Portrait".
  • Velázquez began doing the portraits of dwarfs of the Spanish courts.
   
1642
  • Jan 18 - Captain Antonio Baca returned to Santa Fe from a campaign against the Apaches (Navajos) in the Zuni-Hopi area.23
  • Dec 17 - Governor Alonso Pacheco de Heredia in Santa Fe expressed his warm appreciation for the Catholic Church's cooperation in lending horses from a recent campaign against the Navajos.23
  • 1642-1648 - Civil War in Englan and Scotland. The Stuart monarchy was overthrown by the forces of Parliament as a result of a war between the Parliament's soldiers and the king's army over constitutional rights, and governmental authority. The kings was supported by the Anglican clergy, the peasantry, and the gentry. Parliament was supported by the middle classes, the merchants, and many nobles. The two sides were known as Cavaliers (royalist) and the Roundheads (parliamentarians). The king's army was decisively defeated in 1646 and the monarchy abolished for a time.
   
1645
  • At this time, " ... the Jemez made peace with their enemies, the Navajos, and the two tribes conspired to drive the Spaniards from the country; but the plot was discovered ... ". Governor Fernando de Arguello had 29 Jemez Indians hanged in the pueblo of Los Jemez as traitors and associates of the Navajos. Others were whipped and imprisoned for the same charges and for having killed Diego Martinez Naranjo, a Spaniard.24
  • Sakaida Kakiemon made the first enamel decorated porcelain in Japan. He painted red flower and red bird designs on white porcelain using a technique patterned on the Chinese.
  • Cromwell defeated Charles I at Naseby. Cavalier cause appears lost in England.
  • Sweden was victorious in war with Denmark, which loses some territory.
  • Swedish army defeated the Imperial forces at Jankau.
   
1648
  • During Governor Luis de Guzman y Figueroa's administration (1647-1649), a punitive action was taken against the Navajos " ... in the campaign of the Rio Grande, Navajo, and Cassa-Fuerte."25
  • Margaret Jones of Charlestown, Mass., was the first person in the colonies to be executed as a witch.
  • George Fox, English religious leader, founded Society of Friends (Quakers)
  • Second English Civil War began. Cromwell defeated the Scots at Preston and seized Charles I.
  • Peace of Westphalia ended Thirty Years' War. France and Sweden obtained territory. Republics of the Netherlands and Switzerland become independent. Catholic and Protestant states were accepted.
  • Jan Baptist van Helmont, Belg. Chemist, demonstrated the existence of Carbon Dioxide, (CO2).
  • Pascal published work on vacuums.
   
1650
  • Thursday before Easter - A plot of the Jemez, Tewas and Apaches (Navajos) to kill the friars and soldiers on Thursday night of Passion Week was discovered in time to prevent a massacre. The attempted uprising was put down by Governor Hernando de Ugarte y la Concha. The Apaches revealed the plan when caught by Captain Alonso Baca with a herd of mares delivered to them by Indians from the Pueblos of Alameda and Sandia to seal the bargain of the alliance. The governor had nine leaders from the pueblos of Isleta, Alameda, San Felipe, Cochiti, and Jemez hanged for their part in the conspiracy.26
  • Population in the colonies was estimated at 52,000. World populationis estimated at 500 million.
  • English and Dutch try to decide respective boundaries of their American colonies.
  • Taj Mahal, in Agra, India, was completed.
  • Cardinal Mazarin fights rebellion of the French nobility.
  • Charles II was proclaimed King in parts of England and Ireland.
  • Otto von Guericke, German Engineer, invented the air pump.

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Updated: 05/02/2010
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