Navajo Timeline

Year Navajo History World History
  • March 2 - After visiting Acoma Pueblo, Antonio de Espejo, leader of a Spanish expedition, wrote: "Because of the war this pueblo has with the Querechos Indians, ... it is built on a high rocky cliff." The Querechos Indians are believed by many historians to have been an early Navajo group. They were first encountered on the plains east of the Rio Puerco by Coronado in 1541. Though war existed between them, there was also commerce; the people of Acoma exchanged cotton mantles to the Navajos for deer skins.4
  • June 9 - Espejo and his men returing from a visit to the Hopi village of Awatobi and points further west, were greeted by the Querechos (Navajos) in the area south of Mt. Taylor " .. with a shower of arrows and much shouting, ... " and a battle ensued in which Espejo's men " ... set fire to the (Querechos') shacks. We destroyed a very fine field of maize which they had, a thing which they felt a great deal." After a peace parley a few days later, an exhange of two female Querecho captives, one of which Espejo had obtained from the Hopis while he was among them, was agreed upon. Diego Pérez de Luxán, chronicler of the Espejo expedition, noted: "The Lord willed this that the whole land should tremble for ten lone Spaniards, for there were over twelve thousand Indians in the (Hopi) province with bows and arrows, and many Chichimecos whom they call Corechos, ... " that is, Querechos or Navajos.5
  • Bernardino de Sahagún, Spanish Friar and Linguist, publishes Psalmodia Christiana in Mexico City. It contains psalms in the Aztec language set to native melodies.
  • Persecution of the Catholics leads to plots to murder Queen Elizabeth I and to seat the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots.
  • First known life insurance policy is issued in England.
  • William of Orange rules over the northern Netherlands.
  • Claudio Monteverdi, Italian Composer, published his first work at the age of 16, a book of sacred madrigals.
  • Sept 9 - The prelate of the Franciscans who accompanied Don Juan de Oñate's colonizing expedition, Fray Alonso Martínez, made the first mission assignments to jurisdictions for Christianizing the Indians. " ... Fray Francisco de Zamora was given the Picurís province, the Apache and Navajo of the 'snowy mountains' of northern New Mexico, and Taos and other pueblos in that territory." To Fray Alonso de Lugo were given the province of Jemez and all the Apaches (Navajos) and Cocoyes of the neighboring moutains and districts to the west. The provinces of Sía, Santa Ana, Acoma, Zuni, and Hopi were assigned to Fray Andrés Corchado.6
  • Dec 4 - Acoma Indians attacked a visiting detachment of Governor Oñate's men killing eleven Spaniards and two mozos (servants) - a mulatto and an Indian. Three of the Spaniards killed were officers: Juan de Zaldívar, Maestre de Campo, Diego Nuñez de Cháves and Felipe de Escalante, Captains. Five Spaniards were wounded and five others fled to the edge of the mesa, leaped down the cliff, four of them reaching the plain alive. Only these and a few others escaped the attack led by the Acoma Chieftain Zutucapan. In a retaliatory attack, the following January,the Spaniards severely defeated the Acomas and destroyed the Pueblo.7
  • England and France replaced Spain as the pre-eminent European powers. England defeated a second Spanish Armada. Henry IV of France, a Protestant who converted to Catholicism, issued the Edict of Nantes which grants political rights, establishes religious toleration, and ended the wars of religion against the Huguenots in France.
  • France and Spain sign the Treaty of Vervins; Philip II gives up claims to the French throne.
  • Shakespeare writes Much Ado about Nothing and Henry V.
  • Boris Godunov is chosen Czar of Russia by the national assembly.
  • The performance of a Spanish play in the area of present day El Paso is one of the earliest theatrical presentations on the North American continent.
  • Lope de Vega, Spanish Poet and Playwright, publishes La Dragontea, an epic about the last voyage and death of Sir Francis Drake.
  • Ben Jonson's Every Man in His Humour is performed.
  • Jan 21 - A Spanish force of 78 men, led by Captain Vicente de Zaldívar, brother of the Maestre de Campo slain at Acoma in December 1598, arrived at the Peñol of Acoma and the following day began a three day retaliatory attack on the Pueblo for the slaughter of Spaniards visiting there December 4, 1598. The Spaniards succeeded in getting two pieces of artillery to the top of the rock and brought them into action. Hundreds of Acomas were killed, about 70 or 80 warriors captured, and about 500 women and children taken prisoner. The pueblos were burned, and the remnant of 600 out of a population of more than 3000 were permitted to surrender under the Chieftain Chumpo. Those captured were brought to trial at the Pueblo of Santo Domingo and sentence was pronounced February 12, 1599. Oñate ordered that all males over 25 years of age be condemned to have one foot cut off and to render 20 years of personal service; men between 12 and 25 escaped with 20 years of servitude. Children under 12 escaped punishment but were made subject to the Spaniards. Sentence was executed as decreed. After the destruction of Ácoma, the old men and women, disabled in the war, were ordered "freed and entrusted to the Indians of the province of the Querechos (Navajos) that they may support them and may not allow them to leave their pueblos."8
  • The Globe Theatre is built. Most of Shakespeare's plays are performed here.
  • Shakespeare writes Julius Caesar, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night.
  • Bubonic plague breaks out in Spain.
  • Copper money comes into use in Spain.
  • Swedish Diet (assembly) deposes Sigismund III as King of Sweden.

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Creator(s): Harrison Lapahie Jr.
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Updated: 05/02/2010
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