Navajo Timeline

Year Navajo History World History
1821
  • Mexico declared independence from Spain. Legal status of Indians abolished. Navajos, Apaches, Hopis, Paiutes, Utes, and Commanches comes under the status of Mexican authorities. The new Mexican Republic welcomed Anglo-American colonists and gave free land under the "empresario" system, and many tax benefits. Mexico believed the new colonist would serve as buffers against United States' expansion.
  • Feb 24 - The Plan of Iguala was adopted by Mexico's revolutionary government. It declared that all inhabitants of New Spain without distinction, whether Indian, Europeans, or Africans, were citizens of that monarchy, with the right to be employed in any post according to their merit and virtues and that the person and property of every citizen should be respected by the government. These same principles were also recognized in the Treaty of Cordova between Spain and Mexico dated August 24, 1821, and in the Mexican Declaration of Independence, proclaimed September 28, 1821.
  • March 8 - From Jemez, Juan Antonio Cabeza de Vaca informed Governor Melgares that he had been dealing with the Navajo Chief Joaquín - now designated "General" by the Spaniards - in an effort to have returned cattle stolen by Navajos during the recent hostilities. Chief Joaquín had also requested assistance from the Spaniards in preparing the ground at Pedro Padilla near the Rio Puerco for planting their crops.
  • July 6 - When the Alcalde at Jemez complained to Melgares that landholders in his jurisdiction, fearful of Navajo raids, had moved away in violation of the Comandante-General's 1804 order, which forbade the abandonment of frontier points on penalty of loss of property and lands, he urged that they be forced to return. Melgares replied that the 1804 ruiling held unless there was something in the 1820 Ley Constitutional to the contrary.
  • July 8 - Fray Antonio Cacho, with the knowledge and consent of the Father Custodian, left the Mission at Zuni and returned to Santa Fé because of the imminent danger from the hostile Navajos. Melgares directed a request to the Father Custodian that Zuni not be abandoned.
  • July 9 - Captain Bartolomé Baca, stationed at Cebolleta, expressed to Governor Melgares his suspicion as to the sincerity of the Navajos' desire for peace and requested that he be furnished with auxiliary forces to punish the Navajos should such a course become necessary. The governor ordered a detail of 40 armed men with additional munitions to proceed to Cebolleta.
  • July 25 - Captain Juan Antonio Cabeza de Vaca led an expedition of 225 men against the Navajos. They left from Jemez equipped with 135 escopetas, 3500 cartridges, 150 lances, 155 bows, 3625 arrows, 141 horses, and 126 mules, but the record of their activities, if recorded, is missing.
  • Sept 16 - Two male adults and a five year old Laguna boy were given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest at Laguna. The three had been killed recently during a Navajo raid in that area.
  • Sept 25 - In late September - about the 25th - Captain Francisco Xavier Chávez campaigned against the Navajos. Twenty-one warriors were killed, seven captives of both sexes taken in addition to 400 horses and 2112 sheep. Navajo cornfields were laid waste and the campaigners drove the Navajos from the Sierra Tunicha, "su iglesia, mas de cien leguas de su centro."
  • Sept 28 - Mexico's independence from Spain was proclaimed and the Province of New Mexico, including most of the Navajo country, came under Mexico's jurisdiction. Three months later - December 26 - Mexico's independence was celebrated in Santa Fe.
  • Oct 23 - Juan Armijo returned from a 21-day campaign against the Navajos having left from Cebolleta on October 3. Early in the march, he was beset by insurrections and most of the Spanish citizens accompanying the expeditions deserted; only the Isleta and Laguna Indian allies remained. The expedition marched to the Chaco Valley, passed Chief Cayetano's farm, and proceeded north towards the Carizzo Mountains. On the 19th day out, the only engagement of the expedition took place in which seven Navajos and two of their horses were killed, five horses were captured along with "a baby not yet weaned" and all the Navajos' supplies. The Spaniards suffered no losses. They cut the ears from four of the seven Navajos killed to remit to the governor in Santa Fe.
  • Dec 8 - A spanish expedition against the Navajos returned to Santa Fé and reported that the Navajos had not been engaged in combat "... due to the Navajo enemies having humiliated themselves saying they did not want to fight, alleging themselves to be at peace, resulting in the chieftains and a headmen coming to the capital to treat of it with Señor Governor Colonel Don Facundo Melgares."
  • Dec 9 - José Quintana, a Conchití Indian, was given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest at the pueblo. He had been killed by the Navajos.
  • Dec 18 - Maria de los Angeles, two or three year old Navajo captive and "servant" of the soldier Juan Tenorio, was baptized at Santa Fe. earlier the same year, another two year old Navajo girl had been baptized at Santa Fé and place in the house of Fray don Francisco Madariaga, and a Navajo girl, purchased by Tomás Sánchez, was baptized at Belen.
  • Sequoya, a Cherokee, developed a Cherokee alphabetical lettering system that was used to teach thousands of Cherokees to read and write in their own language.
  • The Spanish governor granted a charter to Moses Austin for the settlement of 300 families in Texas. His son, Stephen Fuller Austin, established the first legal settlement of Anglo-Americans in Texas in 1822.
  • The official U.S. occupation of Florida takes place. Andrew Jackson was made military Governor.
  • Congress rejected a proposal by John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, that the U.S. convert to the metric system.
  • Hudson's Bay Company acquired the Northwest Company in Canada.
  • Bolivar defeated the Spanish Royalist Army at Carabobo and assured the independence of Venezuela.
  • Peru, Mexico, and Guatemala became independent from Spain.
  • Turks put down revolts in Wallachia and Modavia.
  • Greeks seize Tripolitsa, the main Turkish fortress in the Peloponnesus, and massacre 10,000 Turks. The Greek War of Independence began.
  • Congress of Laibach among European powers authorized the use of Austrian troops to suppress revolts in Naples and Piedmont.
  • French Archaeologist and Linguist, Jean-Francois Champollion, deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphics using the Rosetta Stone.
   
1822
  • Feb 20 - Two soldiers, stationed at Valverde, killed by Navajos during an attack in that area, were buried by the Catholic Priest at Socorro. During the early 1820's, the settlement of Valverde was abandoned due to the frequency with which the Navajos committed depredations there.
  • Feb - Thomas James, a disdainful observer in Santa Fe, recorded that he observed a solitary Navajo "... crossing the public square in the direction of the Governor's house, and driving before him a fat heifer. He went up to the Governor's door, to whom he sent word that he had a present for him, and was admitted. What followed, I learned from Ortise, an old Alcalde, with whom I boarded during the time of my stay in Santa Fe. As he entered the room of the Governor, the Navajo prostrated himself on the face. The Governor stepped towards him and witha spurning motion of the foot, which touched the Indian's head, asked him who he was and what he wanted. The poor Indian arose on his knees and said he was a Navajo, and had come to implore peace for his nation. "We are tired of war and we want peace," said he; "our crops are destroyed, our women and children are starving. Oh! give us peace!" The Governor asked the interpreter what he said, and being told, the christian replied, "Tell him I do not want peace, I want war." With his answer, the Indian was dismissed, the Governor keeping his heifer. The poor fellow came to my store, announced his name and nation, and requested me to go among his tribe and trade ... that they had horses and mules which they would exchange for powder, lead, and tobacco. The Indians are destitute of ammunition and gtuns, and Spanish laws prohibit all trade with them in these articles. I gave him several plugs of tobacco, a knife and other small articles, and told him when he went back to his country to smoke my tobacco with his chiefs and tell them if any Americans came to their country to treat them like brothers. He went off with a guard as far as the outposts on the route to his country. But I have no doubt he was murdered by the Spaniards long before reaching his home..." According to James: "...The next news that came told of a descent made by the Navajos in great force on the settlements in the south, in which they killed all of every age and condition, burned and destroyed all they could not take away with them, and drove away the sheep, cattle, and horses. They came from the south directly towards Santa Fe, sweeping everything before them and leaving the land desolate behind them. They recrossed the Del Norte (Rio Grande) below Santa Fé and passed to the north, laid bare the country around the town of Taos, and then disappeared with all their booty. While this was going on Malgaris (Governor Melgares) was getting out the militia and putting nearly all the inhabitants under arms, preparatory to an expedition. I was requested to go, but I preferred to be a spectator in such a war. The militia of Santa Fé when on parade beggared all description. Falstaff's company was well equipped and well furnished, compared with these troops of Gov. Malgaris. Such a gang of tatterdemalions, I never saw, before or since. They were of all colors, with all kinds of dresses and every species of arms. Some were bareheaded, others were barebacked - some had hats without rims or crowns, and some wore coats without skirts; others again wore coats witout sleeves. Most of them were armed with bows and arrows. A few had guns that looked as if they had been imported by Cortez, while others had iron hoops fastened to the ends of poles, which passed for lances. The doughty Governor, Facundo Malgaris, on foot, in his cloak and chapeau de bras, was reviewing this noble army. He was five feet high, nearly as thick as he was long, ... In the meantime, where was the enemy - the bloodthirsty Navajos? They had returned in safety to their own country with all their plunder, and were even then far beyond the reach of Gov. Malgaris' troop of scarecrows ..."
  • March 15 - Three adult civilians from Los Enlames north of Socorro were given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest at Tome. The three had been killed by Navajos during a raid.
  • March 8 - Jack Fowler, a trapper, reported in his journal that a Mexican expedition of 700 men left TAos for a campaign against the Navajos. The Indians, pursued by the Mexicans, had ascended a "mountain" and rolled rocks down upon their pursuers who were forced to retreat after capturing only "one old Indian and some two or three horses that were so poor the Nabeho Cold (could) not drive them up the mountains". The expedition returned May 1, 1822.
  • March 19 - Five civilians, killed by Navajos in a recent attack, were given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priests of Socorro and San Felipe. A sixth civilian died later and was buried on the 22nd.
  • April 17 - Joseph Antonio, three year old Navajo boy, "redeemed" from Apaches by Domingo Gallego,a Mexican, was baptized at Abiquiu, and two others, one belonging to Salbador Grionde, were baptized at Belen. A Navajo baby, 15 days old, was baptized and christened Maria Rita at Laguna Mission.
  • April 18 - Six civilians and one "Indio Coyote" servant, all male adults,were given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest at Tome. All had been killed during a recent Navajo attack along the Rio Grande. Two others, also slain by Navajos, were buried the following day. On the 22nd, one José Miguel, also killed by Navajos, was buried by the Priest at Laguna Mission.
  • April 24 - Governor Melgares ordered the First Alcalde of Santa Fé to make preparations for defense against expecgted hostilities by the Navajos, who, he warned, "... may attempt a bloody vengeance on the inhabitants of the Province." He ordered the Alcaldes each to assemble as soon as possible 50 armed men, and for the peole of the province to be prepared for defense.
  • May 5 - Three adult male residents of Los Enlames were killed by the Navajos and given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest at Tome.
  • May 6 - Governor Melgares sent notice to all Alcaldes ordering a rendezvous of all troops at Cebolleta, New Mexico, for a campaign against the Navajos.
  • June 15 - It was reported that a delegation of 13 Navajos had been treacherously killed by Mexicans at Jemez Pueblo. The delegation had come to solicit peace from the Mexicans. Referring to "the ungrateful gentile Navajo Nation," Alex García Conde, in Durango, Mexico, wrote: "I am nonetheless convinced that said ungrateful nation, due to the repeated proofs that we have of their infidelity, is still unworthy of the kindness and indulgence with which until now it has been treated by our government." Writing some years afterward, Gregg and James both described the event. According to Gregg: "... On one occasion, a party consisting of several chiefs and warriors of the Navajos assembled at the Pueblo of Cochiti, by invitation of the government, to celebrate a treaty of peace; when the New Mexicans, exasperated no doubt by the remembrance of former outrages, fell upon them unawares and put them all to death ..." James dates the event as February, 1822, and places it at Jemez: "... sixteen Navajo chiefs came into the town of St. James (Jemez), sixty miles below Santa Fé on the Del Norte (Rio Grande), and requested the commander of the fort to allow them to pass on to the Governor at Santa Fe, saing that they had come to make peace. The commander invited them into the fort, smoked with them and made a show of friendship. He had placed a Spaniard on each side of every Indian as they sat and smoked in a circle, and at a signal, each Indian was seized by his two Spanish companions and held fast while others despatched them by stabbing each one to the heart. A Spaniard who figured in this butchery showed me his knife, which he said had killed eight of them. Their dead bodies were thrown over the wall of the fort and covered with a little earth in a gully. A few days afterwards, five more of the same nation appeared on the bank of the river opposite the town and inquired for their countrymen. The Spaniards told them they had gone on to Santa Fe, invited them to come over the river, and said they should be well treated. They crossed and were murdered in the same manner as the others. There again appeared three Indians on the opposite bank, inquiring for their chiefs. They were decoyed across, taken into the town under the mask of friendship, and also murdered in cold blood. In a few days, two more appeared, but could not be induced to cross; when some Spanish horsemen went down the river to intercept them. Perceiving this movement, they fled and no more embassies came in ..."
  • June 23 - Two civilian residents of Belen were given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest at Socorro. On the same date, another civilian was buried at Picuris by the Priest from Mora. All three had been killed by Navajos during recent raids.
  • June 30 - Manuel Armijo of Albuquerque wrote Governor Melgares describing a recent Navajo attack on the settlement of Atrisco during which they "killed a child and others and wounded a woman." Armijo gave pursuit "as far as the Rio Puerco."
  • July 19 - José Antonio, a San Felipe Indian, was killed by Navajos and given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest of the pueblo.
  • August 3 - Pedro Chavez, soldier of the Santa Fé Company, was wounded by the Navajos, but escaped, later dying of his wounds. He was given ecclesiastical burial at Laguna by the Catholic Priest of that mission. Fray Francisco Madariaga, Catholic Priest at Tome, gave ecclesiastical burial to Bicente Balejon and Rafael Marquez, two civilians recently killed by Navajos during a raid. Three days later, the Priest at Tomé also buried Antonio José García, resident of Valencia, who also had been killed by Navajos.
  • Sept 21 - Nine days after Governor Melgares advised the Alcaldes of the various districts that peace negotiations were to be held with the Navajos, Antonio Chávez of Belen, reported to the governor that Navajos had committed depredations in that area. They had been pursured to "the PUerto de los Ojos de Toribio" but without success and there the chase was given up.
  • Oct 29 - A Peace Treaty was concluded at Zia Pueblo between the Navajos, represented by their principal leader and two headmen, and Governor Facundo Melgares for the Republic of Mexico. Terms included: "Both parties will forget forever the injuries that have resulted to both from the war;" Navajos remained at liberty to trade and travel in the Province; the mutual exchange of captives held; and "if the Navajos should want a General, it will be 'Chief' Segundo."
  • Florida was organized as a territory.
  • Rebellion of Negro slaves was discovered and suppressed in Charleston, South Carolina. Negro leader Denmark Vesey was hanged along with 34 others.
  • U.S. President Monroe, proposed U.S. recognition of newly independent Latin American republics. Congress passed a measure to establish diplomatic relations with them.
  • American, Clement C. Moor, wrote the familiar yuletide ballad, "Twas the Night before Christmas", for his children.
  • Augustin de Iturbide was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico.
  • Brazil became independent from Portugal.
  • Greeks drew up liberal constitution and declared independence. Turks seized the island of Chios and massacred most of the Greek inhabitants. The Turkish Army invaded mainland Greece.
  • Congress of Verona discussed Europeans problems, expecially the rebellion in Spain against King Ferdinand VII.
  • Haitians take control of all of Hispaniola, forming the Republic of Haiti.
  • Royal Academy of Music, in London, England, was founded.
  • William Beaumont, Connecticut Physician, began his famous digestion experiments in the exposed stomach of Alexis St. Martin, an injured soldier.
  • Quinin production began in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • First U.S. patent for making false teeth was awarded to W.C. Graham.
  • Inspired by Dante's Inferno (1321), French Romantic Artist, Ferdinand Delacroix, painted "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx".
  • At the age of 11, Hungarian Piano virtuoso, and Composer, Frantz Liszt, made his debut in Vienna, Austria.
   
1823
  • Feb 12 - A Treaty between the Republic of Mexico and the Navajo Nation was negotiated at Paguate on this date. The terms had been drafted a week earlier at Laguna and included: Navajos to release all Spanish and Mexican captives; return all stolen property; the Mexicans to return all Navajos held captive; the Navajos to be converted to the Catholic Faith and resettle themselves in pueblos where this conversion might be accomplished. The treaty was signed by "General" Joaquín for the Navajos. In case the Navajos did not honor the terms of the treaty, a Plan of War, agreed to by all the Alcaldes, leading citizens, and officers, was drawn up. One thousand men would enter the Navajo Province for the purpose of making war and raiding. Two hundred men would be left in the settlements for ordinary defernse, but the remainder would proceed with arms and ammunition to prosecute the war. Booty taken from the Navajos would be divided among the men actually taking part in the war. Also, if after the peace was celebrated, any Navajo was caught stealing, "... he would be killed in the act or imprisoned if he surrendered or offered no resistance."
  • April 20 - A Navajo girl captive, about three years old, was baptized at Albuquerque and adopted by her godparents. In the same year, 35 other Navajos, captured, purchased, held as servants or otherwise, were baptized. Five at Albuquerque, ten at Santa Fe, five at San Juan, four at Tome, seven at Belen, and one each at Pena Blanca, San Felipe, Abiquiu, and Laguna.
  • April 29 - Fray Manuel Martínez, Catholic Priest of Socorro, gave ecclesiastical burial to six male civilians, residents of Socorro and Las Huertas, who had been killed recently by Navajos during a raid in that area. Four days later, the Priest at Tomé buried two residents of Belen and Sausal who also had been killed by Navajos.
  • May 31 - Fray Juan Caballero, Priest at Belen, gave ecclesiastical burial to 8 civilians, six males and two females, recently killed during "an invasion" by Navajos. Those killed were residents of Sabinal and Los Corrales.
  • June 18 - Governor José Antonio Vizcarra left Santa Fé with a force of 1500 men on a two and one-half months' campaign against the Navajos. On July 6, however, Colonel Don Manuel Armijo with 150 disabeled men returned to Jemez. Going by way of Jemez, the expedition continued to Mesa Azul (Chacra Mesa) and Pueblo Pintado. Near Chaco Canyon, a detachment was sent out to search for the Navajo Chieftain Antonio el Pinto, but failed to encounter him. Continuing west, they saw a few Navajos on their ascent of the Tunicha Mountains, and on July 8, Captain Julian Armijo and his command, who had escorted the disabled men back across the mountains, returned to the main camp at Red Lake and reported having a battle with Navajos in the Tunicha Mountains in which 14 Navajos of both sexes were killed, one Indian girl imprisoned, and five horses and some plunder captured. On July 10, a detachment under Captain Don Juan Cristóbal García returned from a scout to the Carrizo Mountains; three of his men had been wounded. The expedition continued west, scouting the Canyon de Chelly, where they killed one Navajo, took his horses, and wounded another. Going on to Ojo de la Vaca, on July 15, Navajos were attacked on a mesa along the way; one was killed and the others fled. At Ojo de la Vaca, other Navajos were attacked, seven were killed including four warriors, and eight slaves were captured. A little further south another Navajo was met and killed. They continued on towards the Hopi villages of First Mesa "... having had news that there might be some Navajos and also their stock there." Finding non, Vizcarra summoned the Hopi War Captain whooffered to take him "... to where the Navajos had their camp and their stock; telling me that they were at Chellecito, near a mesa that has only one ascent, which they use in time of trouble." Going to Oraibi, on his return, "... three Navajos were sighted. They were chased, but could not be overtaken." On July 21, "Lt. Don Juan Andrés Archuleta, following a track, ... succeeded in attacking a rachneria of Navajos, killing five women and capturing nine slaves of both sexes, and taking 12 horses and mules and 70 head of sheep and goats ... Captain Don Miguel Montoya reported having attacked the Navajos on his march, and succeeded in killing two women and capturing eight slaves of both sexes." On July 24, Lt. Col. Don Antonio Sandoval reported "... that the Navajo Francisco, together with four soldiers ... had requested permission to gather wild onions, which he permitted them to do. Said Navajo with the soldiers met two Navajos on the way, and they succeeded in killing one and taking the other prisoner." The following day, a detachment commanded by Don Julian Armijo returned to "... the Pueblo of Moqui to collect the livestock of the Navajo Segundo, which our Navajo prisoner reported was there. They were found, mixed among the livestock of the Hopis; the report verified, this Navajo was sent with the captain to separate the Navajo livestock." He later returned with 317 head of sheep and goats, and three Hopis, who claimed 39 head as theirs. Vizcarra reprimanded the Hopis, for having deceived him by telling him earlier that there were no Navajo livestock among the Hopi herds, and detained two of the Hopis as guides. Lt. Col. Don Antonio Sandoval "... left for Oraibi, having had news that there might be Navajos there." On July 26, Captain Don José Francisco Ortiz marched back toward Hopi "... to separate Navajo livestock remaining in herds that they did no present ... he returned with 48 head of sheep and goats." On July 28, Vizcarra "... readied a party of 500 men to march to the place where the Navajos were said to have gathered, but from information obtained from the interpreter, Miguel García de Noreiga, regarding lack of water, the expedition was postponed. On the Oraibi Wash July 31, "... two Navajos with three mules appeared ahead. I detached 10 infantry soldiers, but as soon as the Indian saw them, they left the mules and fled. At the end of another hour, three Navajos mounted on horses were sighted ... I detached another 10 men to a point where they could shoot at them, to see if they could wound or kill them ... the Indians saw them. A shot at them was merely a wasted bullet, and they fled. I immediately rounded up the horse herd that had been left grazing ... Ensig Don Diego Luceno, reported that one of the Indians was El Segundo, who was looking for me in order to talk ... but this could not be verified ..." On August 1, "... the tracks of an individual on foot, and barefoot, were found on a path ... he was overtaken and proved to be Navajo; he was killed and his quiver and bow were taken." Going to Red Lake and by the Elephant's Feet, a well-known landmark, on August 8, Vizcarra attacked a Paiute rancheria, mistakenly believing the Indians to be Navajos. From one of the Paiutes detained as a guide, Vizcarra "... learned that the arroyo or canyon called Los Pilares is the same as Chellicito, where the Navajo Juanico should be." Traveling on, they "... came across the tracks of Juanico's horse herd and cattle ... I followed it until seven at night." The next day, August 9, "I continued the march on the trail of the horse herd and the sheep and goats, which were now traveling together ... At noon, ... the Navajos appeared on the ascent to a mesa (Skeleton Mesa) among them Juanico, who shouted from above that he wanted to talk to me. I replied in a few words that I had come to fight ... At the first shots they abandoned their position, but continued opposing us and firing at us, with the intentionof delaying us to give time for the flight of their livestock ... As soon as we reached the top, a drove of cattle and several little herds of sheep and goats were sighted ... I gathered up all of them, left 20 men as guards, and continued on the trail. After going a short distance, the dust of the rest of the livestock was sighted .. I ... continued with 10 mounted men to gather up the herds of sheep and goats that were seen. (The Navajos always fled on superior horses) ..." Lt. Don Manuel Sánchez, with three soldiers, were ordered "... to round up a few cattle that were seen ... Upon moving some 200 paces from me, ... approximately 10 Indians attacked him. I followed behind to protect him ... the Indians fled at our attack, being satisfied with driving off five horses of those with Lt. Sánchez and seizing the ensign's gun, which they took from his hands in the fighting ... No enemy was seen to fall; but Lt. Sánchez killed one of their horses with the only shot he had time to fire, so violently did they attack. The lieutenant, the ensign, and two of the soldiers with him were wounded in the action. I gathered up the wounded ... and ... rounded up the little bunches of livestock that were near there, and driving them, I retired to join those guarding the cows. The Indians withdrew a great distance, ..." The following day, August 10, while camped on Oljayto Creek, Vizcarra "... counted the sheep and goats and cattle taken from the Navajos. Eight-seven cattle were taken ... and the sheep and goats counted here, after having eaten some and killed some ... 405 head-" On August 12, Colonel Don Francisco Salazar, who commanded a detachment scouting upper Laguna Creek west of present Kayenta, recorded that he "... found the trail of sheep and goats, cattle, and horses moving rapidly, heading toward the place called Las Orejas (Bear's Ears). I halted on top of the mesa ..." The next day, he continued following the tracks but failed to overtake the herd. Two days later, on August 15, he came upon a Navajo rancheria, "... overtook two girls and a boy; in an encounter with eight warriors, they wounded a man of my party, but they were not pursued because they fled into rough country ..." ON August 31, later in the afternoon, the expeditin arrived at Santa Fe, having been out 74 days, during which time they killed 50 Navajos, captured 36, and more than 900 head of stock. Their losses included 9 men killed and 12 wounded, plus 13 head of stock lost.
            One Albet Pike, who accompanied Vizcara on the campaign, some years later described a Navajo attack on Taos and his experience with Vizcarra. Under "The Inroad of the Nabajo," Pike wrote: "One cry, at least, explained the whole matter, - "Los Malditos y picaros que son los Nabajos." The Nabajos had been robbing them; they had entered the valley below, and were sweeping it of all the flocks and herds - and this produced consternation ... They raise corn, they have vast flocks of sheep, and large herds of horses, they make blankets, too, and sell them to the Spaniards. Their great men have a number of servants under them, and in fact, their government is apparently patriarchal. Some times they choose a captain over the nation; but even then, they obey him or not, just as they please. They live about three days' journey west of this (Taos), and have about ten thousand soulds in their tribe." Pike noted that the Navajo raiding party consisted of about 100 men, and that 15 Navajos were left dead after the battle. Pike continued: "Directly after the inroad (on Taos), I came down to Santa Fe. The Lieutenant Colonel of the province, Viscara, was raising a body of men to go out against the Nabajo, and repay them for this and other depredations later commited upon the people, and he was urgent for me to accompany him - so much so, that I was obliged to comply with his request, and promised to go. Troops were sent for from below, and in the course of four months, the expedition was ready; and we set out upon the Nabajo campaign ... It was in the driest part of the summer that we left Santa Fé and marched toward the country of the Nabajo. We went out by way of Xemes, and then crossing the Rio Puerco, went into the mountains of the Nabajo. We came up with them, fought them, and they fled before us, driving the cattle and sheep with them into a wide sand desert; and we being now out of provisions, were obliged to overtake them or starve. We were two days without a drop of water, and nearly all the animials gave out in consequence of it. On the third day, Viscara, fifteen soldiers, and myself went ahead of the army (which I forgot to say, was thirteen hundred strong). Viscara and his men were mounted. I was on foot, with no clothing except a cloth round my middle, with a lance in one and a rifle in the other. That day I think I ran seventy-five miles, barefooted, and through the burning sand."
  • July 14 - José Lorenzo Sánchez, citizen of La Joya, was killed by Navajos and given ecclesiastical burial inthe Parish church of San Miguel del Socorro.
  • August 15 - Manuel Rojo, an adult male from San Fernando, was buried by the Catholic Priest at Tome. He had been killed by Navajos. The following day, two more adults males from Los Enlames and Tome, were killed by Navajos, and were also buried by the Priest of Tome. The next day, August 17, Antonio José Gutierres, resident of Las Huertas, was given ecclesiastical burial by Fray Manuel Martínez. He had been killed by Navajos during a recent raid.
  • Sept 23 - José Manuel Roibal, citizenof Socorro, was killed by Navajos and given ecclesiastical burial in the Parish church of San Miguel del Socorro by the Catholic Priest there.
  • Dec 20 - One Santiago Montoya reported to Bartolomé Baca, Jefe Político, that Navajo families arriving at the capital increased daily, and that from the headmen El Calletano (Cayentano) and El Chato it had been learned that in the country of the Navajos there were 45 or 46 Americans" ... other than those that had retreated back to American." Montoya added: "We believe this to be true because of some of the pieces these Navajos wear of the said Americans, ..." and that the Anglos had made available to them many things" which could prove dangerous to us - such things as guns, ammunition, and other things."
  • The Office of Indian Affairs was created with the U.S. War Department. The office was created without congressional authorization. Thomas L. McKenney was appointed as its first head.
  • Oneida Indians settled at Green Bay, Wisconsin. One of the six tribes of the Iroquois confederacy in upper New York State, the Oneida had tried to remain neutral during the Revolutionary War, but they were subjected to punitive measures applied to the other tribes of the Iroquois confederacy who had supported the British. Their reservation near Oneida Lake continued to shrink in size. In 1823, the Oneida were induced to sell their lands, and the first group relocated to Wisconsin. Over the next 10 years, all the Oneida left New York State.
  • U.S. President Monroe announced the Monroe Doctrine in his annual message to Congress. European nations were warned not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere. The U.S. intended not to take part in European wars.
  • Iturbide, Emperor of Mexico, was forced to abdicate.
  • Guatemala, San Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica, form the confederated United Provinces of Central America.
  • Ferdinand VII, backed by French arms, revoked Spain's Constitution. Cruel repression followed.
  • Treaty of Erzurum ended war between the Persians and the Turks.
  • Rugby football originated in England at the Rugby School.
  • Politician and Philanthropist, William Wilberforce, formed an anti-slavery society to abolish the slave trade and slavery itself in British possessions overseas.
   
1824
  • At Jemez, 14 Articles of Peace, result of a meeting held at Isleta in December, were signed by Vizcarra, Bartolome Baca, and Antonio El Pinto, “General” of the Navajo Nation and presumably the son of the Antonio El Pinto killed by Apaches in 1793.
  • Feb 9 - It was reported that a small party of Navajos from the Rito Quemado had stolen the horse herd of one Juan Maria Baca. The 12 men sent in pursuit were told by the Navajo Chino at Cebolleta that he would recover the animals and return them to the Mexicans. Chino stated also that “ … on the Rito Quemado there was a small party of Navajos and that it is this party that is doing the harm, … “
  • Feb 27 - Juan Cruz Baca, Justice at Belen, informed Bartolome Baca that one Toribio Trujillo had appeared before him with three Navajos whom he had captured trespassing on his ranch at Lomita del Berendo.
  • March 11 - The Office of Indian Affairs, headed by Thomas L. McKeney, was created by order of the Secretary of War Calhoun, and superseded the Office of Superintendent of Indian Trade which had been held by McKeney when it was abolished in 1822. McKeney’s new duties included the administration of the “Civilization Fund” established by Congress on March 3, 1819, to provide a permanent annual appropriation of $10,000 for “introducing among the Indians the habits and arts of civilization.”
  • April 3 - The Missouri Intelligencer published a description of the Navajos, written by Nathaniel Patten, then editor of that newspaper. He wrote in part: “NABIJOS”. Between the Spanish settlements of New Mexico and the Pacific Ocean reside a nation of Indians called the Nabijos, … Their skill in manufacturing, and their excellence in some of the useful and ornamental arts, show a decided superiority of genius over all the other tribes of the western continent: even over those, whose contiguity to civilization, had afforded them the benefit of its example and instruction … “ After discoursing on their supposed origin as refuges from Mexico, the editor continued: “It is a more reconcilable supposition, that the Nabijos were originally a different nation, and one whose arts and mode of living have never been adulterated by an intercourse with civilized society. Their power and bravery are proverbial among the Spaniards, who have experienced more molestation and injury from them than from all the other Indians in their vicinity. They once sent to Santa Fe, a large quantity of silver bullion to be molded into dollars, which the Spaniards perfidiously converted to their own use. The Spaniards also prohibited the cultivation and manufacture of tobacco among them, with a view to necessitate them to purchase their own for which they demanded an extravagant price. These, together with other causes of dissatisfaction, have for many years occasioned mutual hostilities, in which they usually triumphed over the pusillanimity of the Spaniards, and made a large proportion of their sheep and mules the spoils of war. A young gentleman, now in this town, accompanied a strong military expedition against them, which defeated them; and obliged them to sue for peace. They killed a Chief who wore shoes, fine woolen stockings, small-clothes, connected at the sides by silver buttons instead of a seam; a hunting shirt and a scarlet cloth cap, the folds of which were also secured by silver buttons. These people do not adopt the usual Indian manner of living in villages, but are a nation of comfortable and independent farmers … They have fine flocks of sheep, abundance of mules, and herds of cattle of a superior kind. They cultivate corn, tobacco, and cotton which they manufacture into cloth. They have gardens in which they raise several kinds of esculent vegetables; and have peace orchards, the fruit of which resembles our apricots. Several articles of their woolen manufacture equal the quality of ours. We have seen a coverlet, made by them, the texture of which was excellent, the figures ingenious, and the colors permanent and brilliant … The Spaniards imitate the manufacture of this article, but their imitations are far inferior to the original. They made baskets, the small dishes of osiers, so compactly worked as to hold water without the least leakage. The twigs, before being wrought, are variously colored, and so skillfully put together that the finished vessel presents different figures. Their bridles are made of tanned leather, and often embellished with silver ornaments. They dress almost wholly in their own fabrics. The men dress in small clothes, sometimes of deer skin, tanned and handsomely colored. The women wear a loose black robe, ornamented around the bottom with a red border, which is sometimes figured; and when not engaged they use a large shawl of the same color and material. Their different modes of putting up the hair, show whether they are single, married or matrons. The weapons of this interesting nation are the lance, bow and arrow; which they use with dexterity. These advantages and improvements among the uncivilized, if they may be so called, will no doubt astonish many; but the characters of those, who have given us the information, are so far above suspicion, that we should feel little reluctance in vouching for the truth of every fact … “ A second article entitle “The Nabijos” dated April 10, 1824, Franklin, Missouri, corroborated the facts of the Intelligencer article, and appeared in the Missouri Republican on April 26, 1824.
  • April 19 - Navajos drove off five oxen from the vicinity of Abiquiu. Pursued by the owners ,they were overtaken at El Rito de la Gallina. One of the Navajos “by the name of Capitancillo of that tribe calling himself Jose Miguel” and the others made demonstrations and signs of war. As the pursuers returned they saw at a distance a group of Navajos together with a small band of Utes who threatened to take their horses.
  • August 27 - Five Navajo children, purchased and adopted by the Pino family, were baptized at Laguna. In the same year six other Navajos were baptized at Laguna, 16 at Santa Fe, 9 at Belen, 7 at Tome, 6 at Albuquerque, 5 at Abiquiu, 4 at Socorro, 3 each at Taos and San Felipe, 2 each at Cochiti and San Juan, and one each at Santa Cruz, Nambe, and Sandia, most of whom had been purchased or captured.
  • Oct 30 - The Alcalde of Laguna reported that Navajos had stolen the horse herd and mule belonging to a Luis Baca.
  • Dec 13 - It was reported from Jemez that Navajos recently raided the Pueblo of Santa Ana, destroyed some houses, and captured six sheep.
  • Dec 23 - Domingo Salazar reported to the Governor that within the week Navajos had stolen seven cows and five horses from the Pueblo of Santa Ana
  • Mexican Constitution adopted, guaranteeing equality of citizenship to all under Mexican jurisdiction, including Indian peoples in California.
  • None of the four U.S. Presidential candidates received an electoral majority: Andrew Jackson, 99 votes; John Quincy Adams, 84 votes; William H. Crawford, 41 votes; and Henry Clay, 37 votes. All were Democratic-Republicans, except Adam, who was a National Republican.
  • U.S. signed a territorial treaty with Russia, which agreed to 50 degrees 40 minutes as the southern limit of her territory.
  • The U.S. Congress enacted the General Survey Bill authorizing federal plans for roads which may be needed for national and commercial purposes.
  • Jedediah Smith of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company discovered the gateway to the West through the Rocky Mountains at South Pass, Wyoming.
  • The Weavers’ strike at Pawtucket, R.I., was the first recorded strike by women.
  • The first white man to discover the Great Salt Lake was James Bridger, an explorer, trapper, and scout.
  • Auburn (N.Y.) Penitentiary housed prisoners in cell blocks, and they performed labor in groups. An alternative to this system was that of Pennsylvania in which prisoners were in solitary confinement and they worked alone.
  • Civil war broke out in the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Sultan appealed to Muhammad Ali of Egypt for help. Egyptians seized Crete.
  • Revolutionary forces defeated Spanish royalist forces at Junin and Ayacucho in Peru.
  • Anglo-Burmese war began; British captured Rangoon.
  • Dutch ceded Malacca to Britain in return for Bengkulen in Sumatra.
  • Beethoven, now totally deaf, composed Symphony No. 9 in D Minor.
  • After years of controversy, Parliament established the National Gallery, in London.
  • America's first school of science and engineering opened. It was later called Renesselaer Polytechnic Institute.
  • Sadi Carnot, French military engineer, published Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, in which the efficiency of steam engines was examined.
   
1825
  • March 9 - Governor Vizcarra, soon to be succeeded by Lt. Colonel Antonio Narbona, wrote the Comandante-General that he intended to start on a campaign March 9 with troops from the Santa Fe Garrison, re-enforced by citizen militia. Three Navajo prisoners were being held in Santa Fe and Vizcarra wrote “ … that if in the expedition which I am going to undertake, some more prisoners are captured, I will take them all with me when I leave this territory so that they may be placed at Veracruz or another presidio, because I believe that little would be gained by giving them their freedom here. And if the other members of their Nation see them disappear, it may serve to stimulate (peace) and they will do no evil”. Informed while on campaign that Navajos were gathering in the vicinity of Abiquiu, Vizcarra sent a message that they should be seized. The Alcalde and his forces captured 41 Navajos men and women, all but three of which were turned over to Vizcarra. The 38 captives Vizcarra set at liberty on his return to Santa Fe.
  • April 7 - A detachment from Vizcarra’s March 9th campaign commanded by Brevet Captain Jose Caballero, surprised a band of Navajos on this date, and according to one account killed 11, including their war captain, and captured 20 more of the same band. Another account stated that 11 warriors and three women were killed, and 22 captives taken. The captives Vizcarra “ … placed at the disposition of the Senor Jefe Politico so that he might distribute them to the inhabitants of the territory at his discretion.”
  • Dec 3 - Jose Antonio Sandoval at Jemez complained to the Governor: “ … the Navajos are behaving worse each day, for what is happening among them is an indescribable thing, according to the repeated complaints of robberies that they do in this jurisdiction, for they robbed from Don Jesus Gallego the following things: a dipper, an ax, a hoe and all the corn that he had, they robbed from Senor Alcalde Don Tomas Sandoval two cows that he had calved, from Don Pedro Valdez they robbed a horse and they killed a son of Don Antonio Montoya, they deprived him of his clothes and arms, they beat him, too much, and there are innumerable small robberies, … “ On this same day three Navajo children, purchased by Don Juan Antonio Baca, were baptized at Pena Blanca, During the same year, 72 Navajo captives, purchased individuals, servants, and others were baptized, 21 in the Santa Fe Parish, 17 at Pecos, 6 at Laguna, 5 at Sandia, 4 each at Tome, San Iledfonso, and Cochiti, 3 each at Picuris and Santa Cruz, 2 each at Taos and Belen, and one at Albuquerque.
  • U.S. Congress adopted a policy of removal of eastern Indian tribes to territory west of the Mississippi River. Anglos settled on Indians lands; the Indian frontier was established.
  • Seminole Wars continued. Oseola became a leader in the ongoing Seminole resistance to the U.S. government. Agents presured the Seminoles to move to lands west of the Mississippi River. The U.S. claimed rights to all the Seminole lands east of the Mississippi.
  • Creek Indians rejected treaty ceding all their lands in Georgia to the U.S. government. Yet, William McIntosh, a mixed-blood Creek Chief, accepted a 25 thousand dollar bribe to sign a treaty ceding all Creek lands in Georgia and vast tracts in Alabama. The Creek Council, which had voted a death sentence for any member of the Nation who sold communally held Creek land, had McIntosh killed. President John Quicy Adams rejected the McIntosh Creek Treaty but negotiated another one in 1926 which the U.S. retained some of the Creek lands.
  • The U.S. House of Representatives chose Adams (National Republican) as U.S. President. John C. Calhoun (Democratic-Republican) was elected Vice President during the 1824 election.
  • Frances Wright, Social Reformer, established the Nashoba community near Memphis Tenn., for training Negroes to make possible their colonization outside of the United States.
  • The first significant strike for a 10-hour day was called in Boston, Mass., by 600 carpenters.
  • Erie Canal was completed. New York Governor, DeWitt Clinton, opened the canal to the public. It was the first great American civil engineering work, and became an important commercial route connecting the East with the Ohio and Mississippi valleys.
  • Tejas (Mexican territory) was opened to settlement to U.S. citizens.
  • Czar Nicholas I crushed the uprising of the Decembrists, members of the secret revolutionary society in Russia.
  • Turks subdued the Greeks in the Peoloponnesus.
  • Bolivia proclaimed its independence.
  • British began war against the Ashanti on the Gold Coast (Ghana) of Africa.
  • Java revolted against the Dutch control. Javanese are subdued in 1830; Dutch extended their control to the interior.
  • France’s Law of Indemnity compensated the nobles for losses during the revolution.
  • Portugal recognized Brazil’s independence.
  • Stevens, an American, built Action, an experimental steam locomotive.
  • Thomas Kensett, N.Y. canner, patented tin-plated cans.
  • André Ampére, French Physicist, developed the Electromagnetic Theory, which explained the connected relationship of electricity and magnetism.
  • Faraday isolated Benzene.
  • British workers were allowed to organize into labor unions.
  • The Bolshoi Ballet was established in Moscow.
  • World population reached one billion, double the population of the planet in 1500. It had taken from 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1500 to reach 500 million.
   
1826
  • Navajos lived along the south edge of the Little Colorado River, also known at that time as the Yaquesila (“Apaches .. Il parait aussi que les Nabajoa? Qui demeurent le long de la rive meridionale du Yaquesila, sont une autre tribu de cette nombreuse nation.” )
  • Jan 8 - Three Navajo children, ages 5, 6, and 7, purchased by Don Juan Antonio Baca, were baptized at Pena Blanca. During the same year, 38 Navajos, mostly captives, were baptized, 9 at Santa Fe, 8 at Tome, 5 each at Pecos and Sandia, 3 at Laguna, 2 each at Belen, Albuquerque, and Cochiti, and one each at Picuris and Santa Cruz.
  • March 24 - Pablo Baca of Belen wrote Governor Antonio Narbona describing a recent raid committed by Navajos near Belen in which some animals were stolen from one Antonio Chaves. Baca requested the aid and support of 150 troops for 15 days to go in pursuit.
  • Oct 8 - A delegation of four Jemez Indians, having visited the Navajos at Chuska and conferred with the headmen, returned with the news that the Navajos wanted to continue in peace and have their captives returned to them. They complained that they had also been raided recently by two parties of whites.
  • Creek Indians signed the Treaty of Washington, which voided the previous treaty and ceded less land to the U.S. government. The Creeks moved in 1827.
  • The U.S. Senate reluctantly approved the U.S. delegates to the Panama Congress, called by Latin American republics to plan union against Spain and Europe. One delegate died on route; another arrived after the Congress adjourned.
  • Jedediah Strong Smith, Explorer, and Fur Trapper, of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, led an expedition from the Great Salt Lake, to explore the American Southwest, and blazed the first overland route to California. He became the first white man to travel the length of Utah, from north to south, and west to east.
  • The first American railroads built were short-line systems, powered by cable systems, horses, or sails.
  • Persia attacked Russian possessions in Transcaucasia. Russia declared war on Persia.
  • Ottoman Sultan had the unruly Janissaries (elite Turkish corps) massacred in their barracks at Constantinople.
  • The Treaty of Yandabu ended Anglo-Burmese War. British secured Assam, Arakan, and the Tenasserim coast. British also signed a treaty with Siam.
  • Dost Muhammad became Emir (Prince) of Afghanistan.
  • Cooper, and American, published Last of the Mohicans.
  • Felix Mendelssohn, established himself as a leading German Composer with his Overture to Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream.
  • Japanese Artist, Hokusai, began his famous series of wood-block prints, “Thirty-six Views of Mt. Fuji”, finishing in 1833.
  • Benjamin Disraeli, British Politician and Writer, anonymously published his first novel, Vivian Grey.
  • Samuel Morey, Connecticut Inventor, patented an internal combustion engine.
  • America’s first reflecting telescope was built by Amasa Holcomb in Mass.
  • Davy’s last lecture, On the Relation of Electrical and Chemical Changes, won him the Royal Medal, in London.
  • Bessel designed a pendulum that required exactly one second per swing.
   
1827
  • In his sketch of the Hopis in 1828, George C., Yount, a contemporary of the “Mountain Men”, wrote: “ … They never raise nor use horses - Other bad people, they say would steal them - …They were never wage war - Everything sanguinary is uncongenial - At one time an individual of the Navajos, who live Northeast & contiguous, had murdered a highly respectable Moco (Hopi), in a manner quite unprovoked & under aggravating circumstances, & some very bad people of the Navajos came into the town - But they were not molested, save that an urgent request was issued from the ruling council to these bad men to leave the town soon as convenient - No spirit of revenge or retaliation was entertained - They only expressed an apprehension that the relatives of the deceased might be tempted to avenge a brothers blood - … They use no fire arms & entertain no admiration of skill in the use of them - … But how came they there? - By what unknown & mysterious means have they been kept so pure, so good, so simple, situated as they have been, during untold generations, in the midst of tribes so vile, so barbarous, so lost to all the better feelings of man’s degenerate race? - … & yet they have remained there, while thousands, whose hand is against every man, have been passing & re-passing them continually - … “ The Navajos at this time were apparently accustomed to visit the Hopi towns. How warmly they were received or trusted, is conjectural.
  • Jan 4 - Manuel, a Navajo boy about 2 months old, was baptized at Tome. During the same year 19 other Navajo captives, servants, and adopted slaves were baptized, 4 at Laguna, 4 at Belen, 3 at Santa Fe, 2 each at Sandia and Santa Cruz, one each at San Juan, Socorro, Taos, and another at Tome.
  • March 6 - It was reported by Mariano Martin that Navajos had recently stolen a team of oxen and one cow from the vicinity of Abiquiu.
  • May 28 - Manuel Armijo notified Colonel Antonio Narbona, Comandante-General of New Mexico, that Navajos recently stole 40 head of stock in the vicinity of the Rio del Oso at San Juan de los Caballeros (San Juan Pueblo).
  • June 13 - Mariano Martin from Abiquiu notified Governor Manuel Armijo that the Navajos entered unharmed the vicinities of Abiquiu and Canada to steal stock from the inhabitants. Only the night before they robbed some horses from Canada, and from some shepherds they had taken axes, dippers, and other belongings and then escaped to the Sierra del Valle. Five days later, it was reported that Navajos had taken some animals from the neighborhood of Isleta Pueblo, and pursuit had followed.
  • June 27 - It was reported from Jemez by Mariano Martin that Navajos raided the Valle Grande, and that troops were to leave June 29th in pursuit to try to retrieve the animals stolen.
  • July 11 - Mariano Martin again reported to Governor Armijo, as he had on previous occasions, that Navajos were committing raids in the vicinity of Abiquiu almost every day, and with 36 men under retired Sergeant Pablo Trujillo, he was attempting to put a stop to them.
  • July 22 - A Navajo captive woman, servant of Don Clemente Esquibel, was baptized in Santa Fe. During the same year Navajo captives were baptized at Sandia Pueblo, Sausal near Belen, and another at Santa Fe.
  • August 4 - It was reported that Navajos raided near Belen taking 29 sheep from the Mexican, Joaquin Padilla.
  • Dec 3 - Jose Antonio Sandoval at Jemez notified the Governor regarding thefts and slayings committed by the Navajos in the Jurisdiction of Jemez. In his letter to the Governor, he listed the property and animals stolen, and the deaths committed against the persons of Jesus Gallego, Antonio Montoya who also lost a child, and the Alcalde Tomas Sandoval. He requested that men and arms be furnished from the Jurisdictions of Alameda, Cochiti, and Jemez.
  • Path Killer, the influential Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, died. The Cherokee constitutional convention adopted a new political system for the Cherokee, modeled on that of the U.S. government. Path Killer’s strategy had been to restructure political and economic institutions so that the Cherokee could better resist U.S. pressures for removal to lands in the West, negotiate more successfully in Washington, and stop individual Cherokee leaders from selling off communally held lands.
  • First Negro newspaper, Freedom’s Journal, was published in New York City, edited by John Brown Russwurm and Samuel Cornish.
  • Protectionists (mainly northern manufacturers) demanded higher tariffs at Harrisburg convention. Southerners opposed trariffs. Sectional differences in U.S. increase between the North and South.
  • U.S. and Britain agreed to joint occupation of the Oregon Territory.
  • The U.S. Congress gave the U.S. President the right to call out the militia.
  • France, Britain, and Russia demanded an armistice from the Turks to end war with Greece. Sultan refused. French, British, and Russian squadrons destroyed the Turkish and Egyptian fleets at the Battle of Navarino.
  • Argentine and Uruguayan forces defeated the Brazilians at the Battle of Ituzaingó. Argentina and Brazil both claimed Uruguay.
  • Russia defeated Persia and seized Tabriz and Erivan (part of Armenia).
  • Thomas Cole, American, painted “Last of the Mohicans”.
  • Audubon, American, published Birds of American, a collection of 435 lifelike painting, many showing birds in action. Unable to interest American printers. Audubon’s drawings were released in Europe where he was acclaimed a genius.
  • French-American students in New Orleans, La., organized a procession of street maskers on Shrove Tuesday, starting the Mardi Gras celebration.
  • The preface to French Writer Victor Hugo’s drama, Cromwell, called for freedom from rigid literary styles and was later adopted as the rallying call of Romantic writers in France.
  • Georg Oh, German Physicist, published important work on the theory and uses of electrical currents.
  • Karl Ernst von Baer, Est. physician, discovered the mammalian ovum (egg), thus proving that mammals actually develop from eggs.
  • Issac Coffin, British Admiral, born in Boston, Mass., opened America’s first nautical school in Nantucket, Mass.
  • Friction matches, called Lucifers, were introduced in England.
   
1828
     
  • Sequoyah (also known as George Gist), who had invented a Cherokee alphabet and system of writing, used this new language to create a Cherokee newspaper.
  • Andrew Jackson, elected President of the U.S. When he succeeded to the presidency, he was supported by the richest men in the southern states, who wanted to expand their cotton plantations into the fertile lands held by the Creeks, Choctaws, and the other tribes of the South. Jackson set in motion the removal to the West of all the southeastern tribes in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and Louisiana, accomplishing from the White House, what his armies in the field could not.
  • The Georgia legislature passed a series of laws extending the state’s jurisdiction over the Cherokee. The laws were designed to break up the Cherokee nation and take its lands. Since legally only the federal government could have jurisdiction over Indians, the state laws were unconstitutional. But Jackson, as president, did not enforce the legal authority of the federal government over the state of Georgia because of the pending Indian Removal Bill in Congress. Georgia’s Senators and Congressmen had introduced this legislation in order to make it federal policy to move all the tribes of the Southeast across the Mississippi.
  • John Ross, Cherokee tribal leader and Path Killer’s Secretary, became Principal Chief, under a new system of popular election. A successful merchant and slave owner, John Ross, dressed in fashionable clothes, drove a handsome carriage, and was the equal of any of his white aristocratic southern neighbors. He inherited Path Killer’s role as the leader of the conservatives in the Cherokee nation, who wanted to preserve the integrity of the Cherokee nation from U.S. demands for land cessions. Using the moneys from annuity payments, he built a national capital at New Echota, with imposing buildings for different branches of Cherokee government. Between 1828 and 1866, Ross led the Cherokee conservative majority and worked unsuccessfully to preserve Cherokee national and territorial independence from U.S. encroachments.
  • 1828 - 1835 - The first American Indian newspaper, the Cherokee newspaper, the Phoenix, was published in Echota, Georgia. The newspaper had columns in English and Cherokee. It was edited by Elias Boudinot, a full-blooded Cherokee who had gone to school in Connecticut. The Cherokee also had their own system of schools, public roads, agriculture, mills, and a well-organized political system based on a written constitution. In many ways they were more advanced than the white settlers who wanted to claim their territory.
   
1829
  • Feb 21 - Sandoval from Jemez, again notified the Governor that further robberies against his person, Jose Maria Garcia and Fernando Montoya, from the Jurisdiction of Jemez, had been committed by the Navajos.
  • March 7 - Jose Antonio Sandoval and Miguel Garcia of Jemez reported separately to the Governor and the Comandante-General that Navajos had robbed 130 sheep from Francisco Sandoval of the Jurisdiction of Jemez. The Navajos were pursued to the Mesa Azul (Chacra Mesa) and to where they had their rancherias but the sheep were not recovered. Garcia further complained of continuous depredations and insults, misery, and pain caused by the Navajos and asked for the help of troops. In answer to the request, 15 men with arms and ammunition were dispatched to Jemez to patrol the frontier against Navajo incursions.
  • April 14 - A Mexican expedition under orders of Captain Don Jose Antonio Vizcarra returned from a campaign against the Navajos in which 11 Navajos warriors and three women were killed and 22 Navajos of both sexes were made captive. The place of battle is not recorded.
  • Aug 6 - Justice Sandoval at Jemez reported that Navajos had raided Abiquiu and stolen 30 head of stock.
  • Aug 13 - Sandoval, at Jemez, requested help from the Governor after Navajos raided the Pueblo of Santa Ana stealing four horses. They were pursued, unsuccessfully, “to the Cerro Cabezon”.
  • Aug 16 - Navajos from Tunicha reported to Mexicans at Jemez that “the Utes have come inviting them to join the war” against the Mexicans, but the Navajos had declined, preferring to remain at peace.
  • Sept 11 - Justice Sandoval at Jemez reported to Governor Jose Antonio Chavez that Navajos sacked and robbed citizens in Jemez Jurisdiction: “They have stripped a mayordomo of mine, having taken from him his arms, by treachery his ax, and all the utensils of interest that were in the ranch. From the citizen Juan Casador, they have taken a gun, an ax, and all the most valuable goods, they have killed a mare of a native of the Pueblo of Jemez … “ On the same date, Narbona, Navajo Chief, also known as Hastiin Naat’aanii, sent word that he wished to visit the capital at Santa Fe, and requested the Governor to furnish him with an escort of 100 men because of his fear of Comanches.
  • Sept 26 - Justice Sandoval at Jemez reported that Navajos robbed the citizen Juan Montoya of six horses and one mule. Sandoval further complained of the despotism of the Navajos.
  • Nov 5 - Two Navajo captives, a girl and a boy, both 12 years old and servants of Don Francisco Chaves, were baptized at Los Padillas by the Priest from Isleta. During the same year a 10-year-old girl had also been baptized there. Navajos were also baptized during the year at Albuquerque and at La Cuesta near Pecos
  • Nov 7 - The earliest documented expedition to cross the Navajo country from east to west was that led by Commandant Citizen Antonio Armijo, including a 60-man caravan which left Abiquiu, New Mexico, November 7, 1829, to explore a trade route to California. The expedition passed along the northern part of Navajo country including the Canyon Largo, the San Juan River, the Chinle Valley, Marsh Pass, Navajo Mountain, and crossed the Colorado River at the Crossing of the Fathers. Armijo and troops returned to Jemez April 25, 1830.
  • Gold discovered on Cherokee lands. Violating treaties that preserved the integrity of Cherokee lands from white encroachment, thousand of whites poured into Cherokee lands searching for gold. President Jackson removed all federal troops and gave a free hand to the Georgia militia. State officials enforced the rights of the white trespassers over the Cherokees. The Georgia legislature passed laws making it illegal for Cherokees to mine gold, to testify against a white man, or to hold political assemblies.
  • In Washington, John Ross, protested illegal treaty violations, the suspension of Cherokee civil rights, and the intrusion of Georgia laws on Cherokee sovereignty which made it impossible for the Cherokee government to function. He met with little success, as the Cherokee had no voice in democratic institutions and the public was ill-informed about Georgia’s treatment of its Indian nations.
  • U.S. President, Andrew Jackson, introduced the spoils systems into national politics - the practice of basing appointments on party service. Jackson’s unofficial political advisers were called his “Kitchen Cabinet”.
  • Workingmen’s Party was formed in New York. Party advocated social reform, free public education, new banking laws, and non-imprisonment for debt. Movement spread to other states in the North.
  • Cantonal constitution of Switzerland were revised to include universal suffrage, freedom of the press, and equality before the law.
  • Russians capture Adrianople, Kars, and Erzerum. Ottoman Empire on the verge of collapse concluded the Treaty of Adrianople. Russia secured the mouth of the Danube and the east coast of the Black Sea. Turks razed all fortresses in Wallachia and Moldavia and recognized Greek autonomy.
  • Irish political leader, Daniel O’Connell, agitated for reppeal of the parliamentary union of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Edgar Allan Poe, American, anonymously published his first work, Tamerlane and Other Poems.
  • Mendelssohn performed Bach’s St. Matthew Passion, sparking renewed interest in Bach’s works.
  • Rossini completed his final major composition, the opera William Tell.
  • Delacrois painted, “The Death of Sardanapalus”, often considered to be his masterpiece.
  • The first school in American for the blind opened in Boston, Mass.
  • Encyclopedia Americana was published in Philadelphia by Francis Lieber. It is the first American encyclopedia.
  • William A. Burt, Mass. Surveyor, invented the "typographer", an early typewriter.
  • Bigelow, American, coined the word "technology", and published The Elements of Technolgy.
  • Gustav-Gaspard Coriolis, French Engieer, published On the Calculationof Mechanical Action, in which he coined the term kinetic energy.
  • Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky, Russian Mathematician, published his work which established him as the founder of non-Euclidian Geometry.
  • Catholic Emancipation Act in Britain allowed Catholics to sit in Parliament and to hold public office.
  • English Statesman, Robert Peel, founded the Metropolitan Police force in London, England. The police became known as "Bobbies".
  • The first Cambridge-Oxford boat race took place at Henley, England; Oxford won.
  • The earliest recorded "Fat Ladies" in America were Deborah Tripp, who at age 3, weighed 125 pounds, and Susan Tripp, 5 years old, 205 pounds.
   
1830
  • Jan 31 - Navajos raided one Jose Segundo Garcia of the Jurisdiction of Jemez and Cebolleta, stealing from him 11 head of stock.
  • May 7 - Don Jose Antonio Vizcarra reported that the official Navajo interpreter should be sent to the rancherias of Cebolleta - later known as Cebolla Sandoval, Antonio Sandoval, or just Sandoval - and Francisco Baca of the Dine Ana’aii or “Enemy Navajo”, to investigate a report of four horses stolen on this date, as well as some animals that had been lost by Antonio Armijo’s expedition on its recent return from California. The Mexicans hoped to profit by disaccord which existed between Baca and Sandoval.
  • July 27 - The Alcalde of Jemez informed Governor Jose Antonio Chavez that the Chieftains of the Navajo Nation, and some 700 Navajos would meet at Ojo del Chico on the Rio Puerco with representatives of the Mexican Republic on August 11 to discuss reparations for damages and robberies committed by “the malevolent of their Nation”. They agreed to wait three days there for the Mexicans.
  • Oct 31 - A Navajo captive woman, 26 years old and a servant of Dona Ana Maria Salasar, was baptized at Los Santos Angeles near San Juan Pueblo. She was given the Christian name of Maria Josefa. During the same year, Navajos were baptized at Belen, Albuquerque, Sandia, and Taos.
  • The Indian Removal Law passed by Congress. President Jackson signed the Indian Removal Law requiring the removal of all southern Indians to new lands west of the Mississippi. The law created Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Kansas. Since little was known of what was called the “Great American Desert”, it was assumed that no whites would ever want those lands and that the tribes could be safely relocated there. Indian Territory was the forerunner of the reservation system. Because of this law, the Sauk and Fox Indian Nation in Illinois were forced to move west of the Mississippi.
  • The Choctaw removal and the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. The Choctaw had opposed Tecumseh’s confederation, had fought on the American side during the War of 1812, and were one of the tribes who had helped Andrew Jackson save New Orleans from the British in 1815. They held huge tracts of lands in Alabama and Mississippi and were a prosperous people with rich farmlands. Many had intermarried with whites and some lived in two-story plantation houses. They were considered a pro-American people, and ironically it was the U.S. India agents’ familiarity with the Choctaw that made them the first subjects of the Indian Removal Law. Through bribes and coercion the Choctaw tribes “agreed” in the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek to give up all their lands in Mississippi and move to western Arkansas (Oklahoma). The treaty also provided for Choctaw education: “ … the U.S. agrees and stipulates that for the benefit and advantage of the Choctaw people, and to improve their condition, there shall be educated under the direction of the President and at the expense of the U.S., forty Choctaw youths for twenty years.” Of the 13,000 Choctaws who migrated, 4,000 died of hunger, exposure, or disease. Another 7,000 refused to move and stayed in Mississippi, where they became subject to state laws and were legislated out of tribal existence.
  • Fifth U.S. census showed a population of 12.8 million, including about 150,000 immigrants who arrived between 1820 and 1830. The census also showed that 8.8% of the population lived in cities of 2500 or more inhabitants.
  • Mexico forbade further U.S. colonization in Tejas.
  • Louis Philippe became King of the French ("the Citizen King") as revolution forced Charles X to abdicate. France invaded Algeria.
  • Poles rebelled in Warsaw against Russian rule.
  • Venezuela and Ecuador separated from Greater Columbia to become independent republics. The rest of Greater Columbia (Columbia and Panama) was renamed New Granada.
  • Serbia became an autonomous state with Milosh Obrenovich as hereditary Prince.
  • Belgians revolted against the Dutch King.
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes, American, wrote the poem "Old Ironsides", about the battleship, USS Constitution. The poem, which brought the author great popularity, prevented the planned scrapping of the historic vessel.
  • Daniel Emmett, American, composed "Old Dan Tucker", one of the most popular minstrel tunes.
  • Frederic Francois Chopin, Polish Composer, debuted in Warsaw with a performance of his Piano Concerto No. 2 in F Minor.
  • Henry, an American, discovered electromagnetic induction and electromotive force, when he used magnetism to produce electricity.
  • Peter Cooper, N.Y. Manufacturer, built Tom Thumb, America's first commercially successful steam locomotive. It lost a race against a horse when an engine belt slips.
  • Charles Grice, American's first Veterinarian, opened an animal hospital in New York City.
  • Joseph Smith, founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the Mormons) in Fayette, N.Y. The Mormons were forced by opposition to their beliefs to go to Ohio, then Missouri, and then Illinois. They finally settled in Utah under the leadership of Brigham Young.
  • National education system was introduced into Ireland. English was the only language of instruction.
   
1831
  • July 25 - An adult male captive, “de la Tribu Navajo”, was baptized at Sandia Pueblo. On the same day, a Navajo boy, “redeemed” by Don Manuel Armijo, was baptized at Valencia near Tome. Later during the same year, a 2-year-old Navajo girl was baptized at Belen.
  • Sept 28 - Instructions were issued by J.A.V. (Vizcarra?) to the interpreters for the Utes and the Navajos to proceed to the Navajo Province and locate an Indian woman who had been stolen by the Utes and sold to the Navajos.
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld Georgia's order for the removal of the Cherokee Indians beyond the Mississippi. The Cherokee sued Georgia in the U.S. Supreme Court for an injunction against the execution of Georgia’s laws against them. To establish jurisdiction, they used the argument that since the Court had authority over cases involving foreign nations and a state of the U.S., it could rule over a dispute between an Indian nation and a U.S. state. The Supreme Court affirmed the sovereignty of the Indian nations but said they were not foreign nations, hence the Court had no jurisdiction and denied the injunction. Chief Justice Marshall described Indian nations as “domestic dependent nations” whose relationship to the U.S. resembled “that of a ward to his guardian”.
  • De Tocqueville, a French historian visiting the United States, observed the Choctaw on their Trail of Tears and wrote of the process of dispossession. His book, Democracy in America, became one of the most widely read books in Europe and the United States on the new Americans.
  • Nat Turner lead an unsuccessful Negro slave revolt in which about 55 white people were killed in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner was captured and hanged.
  • William Lloyd Garrison, an American, founded the Abolitionist periodical The Liberator, which urged the immediate release of all slaves.
  • Anti-Masonic Party, first political third party in U.S., meant in Baltimore, Maryland. Party was opposed to U.S. President Andrew Jackson and was absorbed by the Whigs after 1836.
  • Belgium separated from the Netherlands. Leopold I became King of the Belgians.
  • Russians suppressed Polish rebellion. "Russification" of Poland began.
  • Austria crushed uprising in Modena, Parma, and the Papel States but failed to suppress Italy's nationalist movement.
  • British took control of the state of Mysore, India.
  • Radical agitation, violence, and workers' uprisings occurred in France. French king and legislature were unresponsive to the political and economic desires of the lower classes.
  • Poems by Edgar Allan Poe was published.
  • The Trumbull Gallery at Yale University, the first U.S. art gallery associated with a university, was founded by Benjamin Silliman, John Trumbull's nephew.
  • First use of the term "Old Glory" to mean the U.S. flag. The term caught during the Civil War when Union troops commonly used it.
  • Hugo published The Hunchback of Notre Dame, one of the most popular historical novels ever written.
  • Henry, and American, built the first electric motor, electrical relay, electromagnetic telegraph, and electric bell.
  • Brown discovered and names the cell nucleus.
  • Faraday produced electric current by a change in magnetic intensity (electromagnetic induction).
  • Charles Darwin, English Naturalist, embarked on a 5-year voyage aboard the HMS Beagle as the ship's naturalist.
  • English Navigator, James Ross, planted the British flag at the north magnetic pole.
   
1832
  • Navajos lived near the Bear’s Ears in southeastern Utah, at the head of Grand Gulch where the Navajo, Hastiin Beyal, was born. At this time, they were having trouble with the Utes.
  • July 9 - An Act of Congress authorized the President to appoint a Commissioner of Indian Affairs to manage all matters arising out of Indian relations, subject to the direction of the Secretary of War and regulations prescribed by the President. Two years later - 1834 - Congress established a Department of Indian Affairs. It was not until 1849 that the Office of Indian Affairs passed from military to civil control with the creation of the Home Department of the Interior. Elbert Herring became the first legislatively - authorized Commissioner.
  • July 30 - Navajos in company with some Ute Indians stole 10 horses from the Pueblo of San Juan.
  • October 1 - The detachment of troops at Socorro was robbed by Navajos “who have taken the mounts of the troops at Socorro”. The troops were unable to give pursuit because they had no horses. Six days later - October 7 - the Navajos took another horse herd from Galisteo which belonged to a Juan Esteban Pino.
  • Oct 26 - Navajo Chief Jose Caballero presented himself to the Comandante-General in Santa Fe to report that he had gone to Tunicha and recovered from the Navajos, who offered no resistance, the Mexican troops’ mounts that had been stolen at Socorro on October 1, except for six that had gotten lost and three that had died.
  • Dec 26 - A Navajo girl captive, 6 years old, was baptized at Sandia Pueblo and given the Christian name of Ana Maria de la Merced. Earlier the same year another Navajo woman had been baptized there and named Maria de la Encarnacion.
  • Worcester v. Georgia. In this suit, brought by a white missionary, Samuel Worcester, on behalf of the Cherokee, Chief Justice Marshall actively ruled for the Cherokees. The Supreme Court found that treaties signed between the U.S. and the Cherokee nation recognized the Indians’ right to self-government and the obligation of the U.S. to protect that right. The U.S. was legally bound to treat Indians “as nations, respect their rights, and manifest a firm purpose to afford that protection which treaties stipulate”. Marshall asserted that “the acts of Georgia are repugnant to the Constitution, laws and treaties of the U.S. … The whole intercourse between the U.S. and this nation (Cherokee) is by our Constitution and laws vested in the government of the U.S.” President Jackson took no federal action and encouraged Georgia to ignore the decision. He was reported to have responded: “John Marshall has made his decision, now let’s see him enforce it”.
  • Black Hawk’s War. Black Hawk, a Sauk Chief, living in what is now Rock Island, Illinois, returned home to plant corn after spending the winter in Iowa. He found his village and lands invaded by white settlers. The settlers refused to move, claiming the land was theirs, purchased from a land company. They called on the Illinois militia (which included Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis), to drive the Sauk out. Pursued through Illinois and Wisconsin by 8,000 state militia and 150 federal troops, Black Hawk’s troops were ultimately defeated and massacred after receiving heavy casualties from cannon mounted on a steamboat at Bad Axe River in Wisconsin. When a 1,300 man federal army arrived at the same river, Black Hawk’s troops were caught between the two forces. Some tried to surrender under a white flag of truce and were massacred. Black Hawk was captured and forced to cede the eastern part of Iowa a punishment for war. The Sauk pledged never to live, hunt, fish, or plant on their previous homelands in Illinois.
  • Andrew Jackson (Democrat) was re-elected U.S. President; Martin Van Buren was elected Vice-President on the Democratic ticket.
  • Samuel F. B. Morse, Massachusetts's Inventor, designed an improved electromagnetic telegraph. He applied for a patent in 1837.
  • Walter Hunt, American, invented, but did not patent, a lock-stitch sewing machine.
  • Sir Charles Wheatstone, English Physicist, invented the Stereoscope.
  • First of the famous American sailing Clipper ships, the Ann McKim, was launched at Baltimore, Maryland. It structure was completely new, and its design was later preferred to all others.
  • New York & Harlem Railroad (New York City) began operating with the first streetcar in the world. Built by John Stephenson, it was the "John Mason", a horse-drawn car which ran on lower Fourth Ave.
  • A Reaper invented by Cyrus H. McCormick was successfully demonstrated.
  • The Khedive of Egypt opposed British plans to construct a canal at Suez linking the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. The plans were put in limbo while he reorganized Egypt on the French administrative model and went to war against the Ottoman empire, acquiring new lands in Arabia, the Sudan, Khartoum, Crete, and Syria.
  • Egyptian Army under Ibrahim Pasha, son of Muhammad Ali, captured Acre, Damascus, and Aleppo and defeated the main Turkish Army at the Battle of Konia. Russia offered help to the Ottoman Sultan.
  • Goethe published Faust: Part II
  • Ando Hiroshige, prominent Japanese Artist in the Ukiyo-e movement, published "Fifty-three stages of the Tokaido", a series of color prints.
   
1833
  • Feb 8 - Some 80 residents of Taos, Rito Colorado, and Abiquiu, New Mexico, petitioned for, and were given a colony grant on the Conejos River in present southwestern Colorado. War with the Navajo Indians intervened, however, and prevented the permanent occupation of the tract. “In the proof presented to the Court of Private Land Claims it was shown that after the settlers had started to cultivate the land, the Indians drove or rode their horses across the plowed fields, preventing the harvest. They were not actually at war with the settlers but seemed determined to create an atmosphere of terrorism.”
  • March 20 - A Mexican expedition was ordered to leave Santa Fe on this date and proceed to Jemez where the expedition would be joined on the 24th by 500 “residents” for a campaign against the Navajos in the Seven Lakes area northeast of present Crownpoint, New Mexico. The results of this campaign are not recorded.
  • Nov 13 - A meteoric shower, remembered in Navajo tradition and referred to as “the time of the falling stars”, occurred on this date. It has been estimated that at one place more than 200,000 shooting stars were seen between midnight and dawn. It was at this time also that the study of meteors began.
            Djasjini, a Hopi, was a boy at the time of the meteorite show of 1833, and at that time, according to him, Navajos lived on the mesas all around the Hopi villages. The Navajos and Hopis were friends and every day Navajos came to the Hopi villages. Djasjini learned to speak Navajo well from being among them so much. In 1858, when he guided Lt. Joseph C. Ives’ party, Djasjini had long been a full-grown man.
  • Nov 15 - A 3-year-old Navajo captive, “servant” of Miguel Chabes, was baptized at Laguna and given the Christian name of Maria Gertrudis.
  • Nov 24 - It was reported to the Alcalde at Jemez that some cattle stolen by Navajos had been taken from the thieves by allied Chieftains Narbona, Francisco Baca, and Cebolla (Sandoval).
  • The state of Georgia held a lottery of Cherokee land and property, declaring Cherokee ownership of land in the state of Georgia to be illegal. Georgia officials gave away Cherokee lands and government buildings at the Cherokee capital of New Echota to holders of winning lottery tickets. John Ross lost his plantation. The Georgia militia was sent to enforce the lottery. Cherokees throughout Georgia were forcibly evicted from their homes, and their fields and livestock were seized.
  • Black Hawk, a Sauk Chief, wrote his biography. This was the first “as told to” Indian biography and was translated by Antoine Le Claire.
  • American Anti-Slavery Society was founded by abolitionist groups from New York and New England.
  • Early form of baseball was played in Philadelphia by the Olympic Ball Club. Many of the rules were like those of English cricket.
  • Oberlin College was established in Ohio as a center of Abolitionist activity. It was the first college to admit both men and women. In 1835, it became the first to admit Negroes.
  • Publication of the Sketches and Eccentricity of Col. David Crockett, of West Tennessee, helped launch the legend of Davy Crockett throughout America.
  • Antonio López de Santa Anna was elected President of Mexico.
  • Slavery was abolished in the British Empire.
  • Muhammad Ali of Egypt acquired control of all Syria.
  • Facing defeat by Muhammad Ali, the Ottoman Sultan accepted Russian military aid and concluded the Treaty of Hunkar Iskelesi.
  • Bavarian Prince became the first King of Greece as Otto I.
  • German states joined the Zollverein, a union organized to eliminate trade barriers among the members of the German Confederation.
  • Mendelssohn composed Italian Symphony, his fourth and most popular symphony.
  • Beaumont, an American, published Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion stating that digestion was caused by chemicals released by the stomach wall.
  • Faraday, English scientist, coined the terms electrolysis, electrolyte, anode, and cathode.
  • Wilhelm Web, German Physicist, developed an electromagnetic telegraph.
  • French Mathematician, Siméon-Denis Poisson published Treatise on Mechanics, which became the standard text on mechanics.
  • East India Company's monopoly of trade in China ended.
  • In England, Factory Act forbade the employment in textile industry of children under 9 years, restricted labor of those between 9 and 13 to a 9-hour day, and of those from 13 to 18 to a 12-hour day. Children under 13 were to have 2 hours schooling a day.
   
1834
  • Feb 6 - Blas Antonio Chaves, Alcalde of Jemez, reported to Governor Francisco Sarracino at Santa Fe that the Pueblos of Santa Ana, Zia, and Jemez, and the entire jurisdiction were very poor and demoralized because of Navajo raids and depredations, and that in answer to the Governor’s request for men and horses for a campaign against the Navajos, only a few could be supplied.
  • Feb 21 - Navajos attacked a ranch near the Pueblo of Zia killing one man named Marcos Gallegos, “took captive two children, a burro, and other equipment from the ranches”. Thirty-six men pursued the Navajos to Mesa Prieta along the Rio Puerco, but there became so bogged down in the mud that after reaching the mesa top, they decided to return.
  • June 4 - Maria Josefa, 20-year-old Navajo purchased by Juan Jose Martinez, was baptized at Bernalillo. During the same year, Navajos were baptized at Albuquerque and Santa Fe.
  • July 11 - Rafael Garcia de Noriega of Jemez wrote the Governor that Navajos recently raided in a canyon near Jemez taking a mule and three horses near the settlements. He further requested that a force of 300 men be raised to fight the Navajos “who are planning to conquer the territory, … “
  • Aug 14 - Ambrosio Culaques at Jemez informed Governor Sarracino that the Navajo Headman Francisco Baca had moved his family from the Cebolleta area and taken refuge elsewhere and “ … the place is not known where he may be found”. The interpreter for the Navajo Tribe had been ordered to bring the headman to Jemez.
  • Sept 4 - Two adult males from San Antonio were killed by Navajos and given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest of Albuquerque.
  • During harvest time a party of trappers, nearly 200 strong, “… crossed over from Williams’ Fork to the Colorado Chiquito river, at the Moquis village, where some of the men disgraced themselves .. the Moquis were a half-civilized nation, who had houses and gardens, and conducted themselves kindly, or at the worst peaceably, toward properly behaved strangers. These trappers, instead of approaching them with offers of purchase, lawlessly entered their gardens, rifling them of whatever fruit or melons were ripe, and not hesitating to destroy that which was not ripe. To this, as might be expected, the Moquises objected; and were shot down for so doing. In this truly infamous affair 15 or 20 of them were killed”.
  • Oct 13 - During a campaign against the Navajos - October 13 to November 17 - led by Captain Blas de Hinojos, 16 Navajos were killed, three taken captive, goods and grain were seized, one captive recovered, and 15 horses and 3000 sheep seized.
  • Chumash enslavement ended. In California, thousands of Chumash Indians who had been enslaved by the Spanish missions were set free. One of California’s biggest tribes, they numbered almost 20,000 people and lived in villages that contained over 1,000 inhabitants each, in the area of present-day San Luis Obispo to Malibu Canyon. They spoke at least six dialects and inhabited lands as far inland as the San Joaquin Valley. The Chumash created some of the finest rock paintings in North America and were also the center of a thriving regional trading economy. Unable to recognize the complex religious underpinnings of the Chumash, the Spanish insisted they become Christians, and the missionaries sent out soldiers to the Indian villages to bring the Chumash, by force if necessary, into the missions. There they were dressed in blue uniforms, their families broken up, and men and women forced to live separately. They were ordered to work in the mission’s fields and to care for livestock, tan hides, produce candles, bricks, tiles, shoes, and other necessities of life. They died by the thousands in epidemics of smallpox and malaria. When 65 years of enslavement ended with Mexico’s secularization of the Indian missions, they were free to leave. However, their old villages had been destroyed, and their lands (that had been incorporated into lands grants of the missions) soon transformed into Mexican rancheros. The Indians became peons, on the equivalent of feudal serfs, on the new rancheros, which in a few years (after 1848 and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo) would become property of new American owners. California’s Indian population dropped from approximately 310,000 in 1769 to 30,000 by the end of the California Gold Rush in 1860.
  • Spanish missions in California secularized by Mexico. The authority of the Catholic Church subordinated to Mexican government.
  • Charles Babbage designed the forerunner of the computer, the “analytical engine”, a large-scaled digital calculator. Too advanced for the technology of the day, it did not evolve into the computer until the discovery of electricity.
  • In France, Alexis de Tocqueville published Democracy in America. Based on his personal observations and travel in America, it remains one of the most acute analyses of American democracy: “Two things are astonishing about the United States: the great changeableness of most human behavior and the singular fixity of certain principles … Men bestir themselves within certain limits beyond which they hardly ever go … They love change but dread revolutions.”
  • 1834-1835 - Treaty of New Echota. Another Cherokee leader, John Ridge, went to Washington. Although he represented only a negligible number of Cherokees, he negotiated a treaty selling of Cherokee lands for 5 million dollars and agreed to move west. The Cherokee National Council unanimously rejected the Treaty of New Echota, but the U.S. Senate ratified it. (In 1839, Ridge and his son and nephew were assassinated by the Cherokees in Oklahoma.) The Governor of Georgia, shut down the Phoenix, the Cherokee newspaper, and prepared to enforce the treaty provisions. John Ross continued to meet with Senators and Congressmen, and even the President of the United States, to have the illegal treaty annulled. It was to no avail.
   
1835
  • Jan 7 - Two Ute Indians arrived at Jemez to trade and reported that the Navajos and Utes were closely associated, and that the “rich Navajos had settled their rancherias in the Silver and Datil Mountains (La Plata and Ute Mountains) for the year” next to the Utes.
  • Jan 14 - A large party of Navajos raided the Pueblo of Jemez taking 50 head of stock of which 18 were retrieved by the Alcalde of Jemez. One Navajo was killed in the skirmish. Fourteen horses from the herd at Zia were also taken by Navajos.
  • Feb 8 - An expedition of about 1000 Mexicans and Jemez Indians led by Captain Blas de Hinojos, Comandante-General of New Mexico, departed Santa Fe for the Navajo country. Ascending Washington Pass 20 days later - on February 28 - the force was ambushed by Navajos. Captain Hinojos and Juan Antonio Baca, leader of one division, were killed; Salvador, Captain of the Jemez auxiliaries, was forced to jump to his death over a cliff, and many of the troops were slaughtered. The ambush was a complete rout and victory for the Navajos. The remnant of the ill-fated expedition returned to Santa Fe, March 13. In spite of their defeat, during the campaign they claimed to have killed 35 Navajo warriors, captured four of both sexes, 14 horses, 6604 sheep, and 109 cattle.
  • March 3 - Because of the frequency of Navajo incursions, Juan Rafael Ortiz, Gobierno Politico of New Mexico, ordered the First Alcalde of Santa Fe to station a detachment of 15 armed men with supplies at the Canyon of Santa Clara for intervals of 15 days.
  • March 10 - After some Navajos raided the Albuquerque area and drove off a herd of cattle, Julian Tenorio, First Justice of that District, wrote the Governor on this date to praise the actions and bravery of one Manuel Armijo and his men for having pursued the Navajo raiders and retrieved the stolen animals.
            On this same date, the Catholic Priest at Tome gave ecclesiastical burial to three male adults, one from Casa Colorada, and two from Tome, who had been killed by the Navajos. Nine days later, on March 19, the same Priest buried another adult male at Tome, who had been killed on the road by Navajos.
  • June 5 - J.F. Baca, Jurisdiction of Socorro, reported that on this date a large number of Navajos fell upon the settlement of Lemitar and took 2000 head of sheep and goats and carried off a shepherd, killed one man and wounded two others. On the same day, at 6 o’clock in the morning, “a great multitude of Navajos, perhaps they would number over 200, fell upon this settlement of Socorro” taking cattle, the community horse herd and milk goats and sheep of the community, and a shepherd. Pursued to the Ojo de la Culebra (Snake Spring north of Magdalena, New Mexico), the small Mexican force deemed it prudent not to attack so large a force of Navajos who, on a point in sight of the pursuers, roasted meat from the animals they had taken.
  • July 5 - Santiago Martin from Abiquiu sent word to Governor Albino Perez that the Navajo Chief Narbona was soliciting peace with the Mexican Republic.
  • Aug 11 - To the Alcaldes of Santa Fe, Abiquiu, Cochiti, Jemez, Laguna, Tome, Sandia, Albuquerque, Isleta, Valencia, Belen, Sabinal, San Ildefonso, Canada, Santa Clara, and San Juan. Governor Perez explained that the Navajos, to show their good intentions, were soliciting peace and the exchange of captives. Navajo leaders were to meet with representatives of the Republic at San Miguel de Jemez for negotiations. The Alcaldes were to furnish 605 mounted men from their districts for the meeting. On August 15, Perez wrote the Senor Comandante-General Inspector: “By the appointment that the Navajos have made with me at the point of San Miguel in their land for the 26th of the current month with the purpose of establishing the peace … I have decided to march the 18th of the current month with the entire strength of the troop that I can unite and 600 citizens that I have also decided should accompany me for the same purpose; and you may be sure that on my return I will report to you the final results of my expedition; you should rest in confidence that the peace repeatedly solicited by these aborigines will certainly be such that there will result from it general benefit for these inhabitants and honor to the arms under my command”.
  • Sarah and Angelina Grimke were the first American women to speak publicly against slavery and to advocate women’s right. The Protestant Clergy of New England condemned the southern sisters as “unnatural women”, claiming that the Bible “bade women to be silent”. The sisters, who were from a slave-owning South Carolina family, countered by publishing the first tract calling for women’s right to speak in public, to own property, and to have a political voice.
  • 1835-1842 - Second Seminole War. The U.S. appropriated over 50 million dollars to fight the Seminoles. The war against the Seminoles was the most costly and least successful of all the American wars until Vietnam. For years the Seminoles forcibly resisted efforts of the U.S. Army and Indian agents to remove them from their lands in Florida and relocate them to the West. Between 5,000 and 10,000 U.S. troops were deployed in Florida against them. After Seminole leader Osceola led a party that ambushed the U.S. Indian agent working to gain Seminole compliance with the Removal Treaty of 1830, the second war broke out. Osceola was lured to a peace council under a white flag, then seized by American troops and put in prison. He died in prison the same year, 1837, at the age of 40. He was considered the most capable and the boldest of the Seminole leaders.
            After Osceola’s capture and death, Billy Bowlegs took over as leader. He led 200 Seminole warriors in an attack on a government trading post operating on Seminole land, killing most of the American troops. The Seminoles then retreated into the Everglades, where they hid during the day and raided at night. The U.S. Army pursued them through malarial swamps in a long, frustrating war. Bowlegs eventually fought for the North in the Civil War and died in 1864.
  • Mexico rejected Texans’ petition for statehood. Texas Revolution broke out when Mexicans tried to disarm Americans in Gonzales. Samuel Houston was made commander of the Texan army.
  • Unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Jackson was the first attack on the life of a U.S. President.
  • Gold was found on Cherokee land in Georgia. Cherokee Indians were forced to cede lands to U.S.
  • Danish Author, Hans Christian Andersen, published the first volume of his fairy tales.
  • Burden, an American, invented a horseshoe machine that was later used to make most of the horseshoes needed by the Union Army during the Civil War.
  • America’s first cast iron bridge was built over Dunlap’s Creek in Brownsville, Pennsylvania.
  • Coriolis described the Coriolis effect(the deflection of a moving body with respect to the Earth’s surface, caused by the Earth’s rotation), a concept important in the study of weather systems.
  • Samuel Colt designed a pistol with a revolving cartridge cylinder. Cheaply mass-produced with interchangeable parts, the rapid fire and hand size revolver was especially useful for men on horseback.
  • The Polka was first danced in Prague, Czechoslovakia.
   
1836
  • The Navajo, Jose Castillo, was born at Canoncito, where he grew up among other Navajos residing in that area.
  • March 2 - Jose Francisco, a Navajo purchased by Don Juan Nepomuceno Jaramillo, was baptized at Sandia Pueblo. Another Navajo captive was also baptized there four months later and given the Christian name of Jose Salvador.
  • June 26 - It was reported that one Rafael Lopez, who had been given a license to go and rob the Apaches (Navajos), had gone out with 11 other Mexicans, returning with 3500 sheep and goats which they claimed to have taken from some Apaches (Navajos, since Apaches were not sheepherders) who had stolen the animals and were driving them along the trail. It was learned, however, that the stock had been stolen from some Mexican herders along the Rio Salado and Rafael Lopez and his group used the story of Navajos driving the stock to cover up their crime, for which they were to be punished.
  • July 21 - Jose Francisco Vigil, leader of an expedition made up of volunteers from the Alcaldias of San Juan, Taos, Ojo Caliente, and Abiquiu to campaign against the Navajos, was instructed as follows: “In the Navajo Nation there are at peace and trust the people or rancherias of Narbona, Sandoval, Jose Tapia, Caballada Mucha, and El Negrito, who have been at Zuni offering the Governor their cooperation in order to punish the dissidents of their nation. For that reason, it is important to guard them and to respect their interests which they deserve for this trust”.
  • Sept 14 - An expedition composed of 2000 men in three divisions under the command of Lts. Jose Caballero, Francisco Garcia, and Jose Silva, went into the field to wage war against the Navajos in the Zuni area. During the campaign 19 Navajo warriors and one woman were killed, and one Indian captive was taken from them. Also taken from the Navajos were 108 horses and mules, 1537 sheep, “and the spoils that they left due to the vengeful ardor when they attacked them”. One of the division commanders, Lt. Francisco Garcia, was killed during the campaign and was buried at Zuni.
  • Nov 24 - Five civilians, all male, recently killed by Navajos in an attack near Albuquerque, were given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest, Fray Jose Francisco Rodriguez.
  • Dec 9 - In the dead of winter Governor Albino Perez led an expedition of 60 soldiers and 750 Pueblo and civilian auxiliaries against the Navajos, departing from Santa Fe on December 9. Going by way of Cubero, he heard that the Zunis were allied with the Navajos against the Mexicans, but after proceeding to that Pueblo he found the rumor to be false. As a gesture of their good faith the Zunis turned over to the Governor two Navajos they had taken. The two were summarily shot. While at Zuni, one man froze to death and 14 others were badly frozen but survived. Proceeding to the Chuska Mountains, they engaged the Navajos from four rancherias in battle during which they killed 20 warriors, took an Indian woman and 14 children of both sexes prisoners, captured 3500 sheep, and 80 mules and horses. Two men were wounded by arrows, one of whom died, and 54 of the men were badly frozen, one losing two fingers. Proceeding on towards Canyon de Chelly, at Ojo del Carrizo, a detachment of troops reported having fought with the Navajos of three rancherias, over-whelming them, and killing 8 warriors, capturing two Indian women and two children, 2000 sheep, and 18 mules and horses. The Mexicans suffered no losses during the engagement but suffered from the extreme cold which froze the hands and feet of 140 men, and of these, one lost an ear, another three toes. The Navajos later reported 100 women and children missing following the surprise attacks. Mexican losses totaled one man killed, 295 wounded, and 20 to 30 head of stock lost. During the expedition, four Navajo warriors approached the expedition and sued for peace. The entire march had been made through snow and on January 12, a blizzard struck which raged all day and night while the expedition was in the Tunichas.
  • 16,000 Cherokee walked to Oklahoma from Georgia along the Trail of Tears. Seven thousand federal troops arrived in Georgia in December to enforce the final deadline for the Cherokee removal. They were backed up by the Georgia militia, who rounded up the Cherokee with bayonets. The ensuring migration of the Cherokee to Oklahoma in the dead of winter became known as the Cherokee Trail of Tears or “the Trail where they cried.” The forced migration took six months and an estimated one out of four Cherokee died during the journey.
  • Texas Independence. Republic of Texas established by white empresarios, mostly southerners who had been given land grants by the Mexican government. Mexican soldiers captured the Alamo, inciting insurrection in Texas. Increasing military encounters between new Texas landowners and Mexican soldiers eventually led to war between the U.S. and Mexico.
  • Galvanized iron was introduced in France. Manufactured as barbed wire fencing, it found a huge market in the American West, where it was used to fence large tracts of cattle lands.
  • Martin Van Buren (Democrat) was elected U.S. President. Since none of the four Vice-Presidential candidates received an electoral majority, the Senate, for the first and only time, chose Richard M. Johnson (Democrat) for the office.
  • Massachusett’s child labor law required children to attend school for at least 3 months a year until they are 15. Manufacturers were not allowed to hire children in their mills for more than 9 months a year.
  • Andrés Santa Cruz, President of Bolivia, invaded Peru and established a Peru-Bolivia confederation.
  • Boer farmers and cattlemen left Cape Colony, South Africa, to escape British rule and founded Transvaal, Natal, and the Orange Free State.
  • Unsuccessful plot to kill King Louis Philippe in 1835 resulted in more repressive laws by the French government. The King gained personal power by splitting the liberal movement and appointed weak men to office.
  • The University of London was founded. It was the first institution of higher learning not connected with any particular religious group.
  • German Romantic Composer, Robert Schumann, composed Fantasy in C Major.
  • Russian Novelist, Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol, staged his satirical play, The Inspector General.
   
1837
  • Navajos attacked the western most Hopi village or Oraibi in sufficient force to cause the Hopis to suffer a severe defeat. In 1853, it was noted that some years earlier, a New Mexican captive had passed through the Hopi country with 1000 Navajo warriors. It is likely that he was accompanying the large Navajo war party that almost annihilated Oraibi in 1837.
  • April 11 - Navajos raided the Pueblo of San Felipe taking wood and a burro. The Cochiti and Santo Domingo Indians pursued them and killed three of the Navajos.
  • May 10 - Seven Navajos with their flocks of sheep and goats were attacked near Zuni Pueblo by Mexicans and Zuni Indians. Three of the Navajos were slain as was one of their horses, and their flocks taken.
  • Aug 31 - The Governor appointed Don Julian Tenorio, Alcalde at Albuquerque, to command the volunteer troops from Cochiti and Valencia, who were to gather at Laguna or Cebolleta in order to avoid a surprise attack from the Navajos who the Governor said were threatening that frontier.
  • Sept 3 - Three days later Julian Tenorio reported to the Governor: “There arrived right now mail from Cebolleta with the report that the Alcalde of that frontier is fighting in Acoma, that he went for the Indians and that these together with the Navajos approached him in the pueblo and two citizens were killed. It also says that the Indians of Laguna have not wanted to give aid to said Alcalde. It is credible that these pueblos are allied with the Navajos, at least Your Excellency knows that with regard to Acoma and Zuni there is no doubt; … “
  • Oct 22 - A Navajo boy, five years old, “bajo el dominio de” (under the dominion of) the Mexican Andrés Lucien, was baptized at San Antonio near Albuquerque. Navajos held in peonage were also baptized during the same year at Picuris, Sabinal, and others at Albuquerque.
  • Oct 28 - Alcalde Manuel Martinez informed the Governor of a recent Navajo attack on Ojo Caliente in which he participated in its defense, but the Navajos succeeded in killing one man and taking four sheepherders and four cattle. The Navajos were pursued.
  • Nov 22 - Six adult male citizens, recently killed by Navajos in an attack near Albuquerque, were given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest Jose Francisco Rodriguez. Five others, also killed by the Navajos, were buried two days later.
  • Congress passed legislation ending direct payments to Indian tribes for lands they had ceded or sold to the U.S. Instead, proceeds were to be held by the Treasury “in trust” and used for the benefit of the Indians, a provision still in force. Over the years, suits by various tribes have revealed many financial abuses in the administration of these “trust” funds: Indian trust accounts have been manipulated to show such irregularities as no interest over decades and declining revenues despite deposits. Tribes have sometimes even been refused the right to audit their own funds. (In a 1996 audit, the BIA couldn’t account for 2.4 billion dollars in trust account transactions.)
  • U.S. troops forcibly moved the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to Indian Territory (eastern Oklahoma).
  • U.S. troops under Zachary Taylor defeated the Seminoles at the Battle of Okeechobee.
  • 1837-1838 - Smallpox epidemic destroyed the Mandan Indians in North Dakota. The Mandans were an agricultural people whose population of 10,000 was concentrated in nine villages along the Missouri Valley in North Dakota. They possessed lighter skin and fine features, and many whites, including Artist, George Catlin, and explorers, Lewis and Clark, commented on their fine appearance, dignity of manner, courtesy, sense of fun, and spectacular costumes. Although they had weathered a sereies of smallpox epidemics brought by early traders, the epidemic of 1837 was so devastating that only 130 survived. Those survivors joined with the Arikara and Hidatsa peoples. George Catlin’s paintings remain the best record of the Mandan.
            Chickasaw removal from Mississippi and Alabama. The last of the southern Five Civilized Tribes, the Chickasaw, were forcibly removed to Indian Territory from Mississippi and Alabama and their lands taken for cotton production.
  • 1837-1885 - Beginning of an explosion in warfare technology. New weaponry changed techniques of battle, organization of the military, and strategies of warfare. Improvements in metallurgy, machines, and explosives led to the development of shells instead of ball and powder, the repeating rifle, the machine gun, and heavy artillery. France adopted the shell gun in 1837. The Prussian military adopted the breech-loading artillery manufactured by the Krupps in 1849. The U.S. invented the repeating rifle in 1860. The Gatling gun (a machine gun) was manufactured in England in 1861. The French chassepot in 1886. The Maxim gun in 1884. The new weaponry shaped the economic policies of governments, requiring them to raise huge amounts of money to finance wars. Competition among major powers led to the rise of a large armaments industry in both Europe and the U.S.A.
  • Michigan became the 26th U.S. state.
  • Canadian militia crossed the Niagara River and seized on the U.S. side the Caroline, a steamer in the service of Canadian rebels. U.S. President Van Buren declared that neutrality laws should be observed.
  • An Act of Congress increased the U.S. Supreme Court membership from seven to nine.
  • Victoria became Queen of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Provincial revolts and separatist movements occurred in Brazil until direct monarchial government was reestablished in 1840.
  • Constitutional conflict led to unsuccessful rebellions against Britain's colonial government in Upper and Lower Canada.
  • Crowns of Hanover and Great Britain were separated after a union of 123 years.
  • Benjamin Disraeli was elected to the British Parliament.
  • Hawthorne's Twice-Told Tales his first signed work, brought the author public recognition.
  • Painter George Catlin exhibited his "Gallery of Indians", a series of more than 500 paintings and sketches of various American Indians.
  • Alexander Davis published Rural Residences, which popularizes Gothic revival architecture for country homes.
  • Emerson publishedThe American Scholar, in which he asserted America's literary independence from England.
  • Dickens published Oliver Twist, an immediate bestseller.
  • Berlioz's Requiem - Grand Messe des Morts calls for 600 singers, a full orchestra, 4 brass bands, and 16 kettledrums.
  • Scottish Author, John Gibson Lockhart, published a biography of his father-in-law, Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Scott.
  • Carlo Blasis became Director of the Imperial Ballet, Milan, and revolutionizes technique of Italian dancers.
  • James Dana, New York geologist, published System of Mineralogy.
  • Thomas Davenport, Vermont inventor, patented a crude electric motor.
  • Charles Page, Massachusetts Physicist, designed an early induction coil.
  • Baer described embryonic structures in his work On the Development of Animals.
  • Von Struve published Micrometric Measurement of Double Stars.
  • Encke discovered a small gap in Saturn's outer ring. This gap was now known as Encke's Division.
  • Novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne reported that young officers at the Charlestown Navy Yard in Massachusetts had started wearing moustaches, a fashion from England.
  • Blacksmith John Deere invented the first plow with a steel moldboard, necessary for plowing heavy, sticky prarie soil. This improvement eventually revolutionizes prairie farming.
  • P.T. Barnum convinced the public that Joyce Heth, a woman weighing 46 lbs., was the nurse who brought George Washington into the world and is therefore, 161 years old. She was Barnum's first successful hoax.
  • German educational reformer, Friedrich Frobel, opened his first kindergarten in Germany.
   
1838
  • Feb 5 - The Comandante-General of Santa Fe complained to the Minister of War and Navy in Mexico of the terrible and frequent raids of the Navajos which “ …have become each day more terrible with their frequent incursions”, for the past five years. As a result, many villages had been left destitute.
  • Sept 13 - A Mexican expedition commanded by Governor Manuel Armijo, and comprised of 978 men, including only 130 soldiers, departed from Jemez to wage war against the Navajos. The plan of operation was to march to the heart of the Navajo country and map their pastures and fields. Jemez was to be their base of operations for ammunition and supplies. For four days they marched to the Tunicha Mountains where they attacked the Navajos. They killed 78 warriors and captured 56 slaves of both sexes (An account in the Service Record of Captain Don Francisco Martinez says that “76 slaves of both sexes” were captured, and that one Mexican captive was recovered). They took from the Navajos “ … 226 horses, 2060 sheep, five serapes of wool, 160 buckskins, their spoils, destroying a great field that would have produced over 600 fanegas of corn and drove them from the Tunicha Mountains, their stronghold, for over 100 leagues (250 miles)” to the Gila River where the Navajos joined the Apaches. The campaign continued from September 13 into October. On this same date, 1100 troops left Chihuahua for New Mexico.
  • Nov 11 - A Navajo child captive was baptized in Albuquerque and given the Christian name of Jose Maria. During the same year Navajos held in peonage were baptized at San Miguel del Vado, Belen, Tome, and Taos.
  • Dec 21 - In a campaign against the Navajos, Captain Don Pedro Leon Lujan and his troopers attacked a Navajo rancheria in the Arroyo de Tunicha east of the Tunicha Mountains. In his diary, Captain Lujan recorded: “ … I disposed to attack them … which I did, making war upon them and giving them a tenacious and rapid fire until eight at night, … In this engagement of Arms I succeeded in killing two warriors and a woman, capturing six little slaves of both sexes, taking 20 horses and mules, 40 hides … and buckskins, 14 saddles, some 20 sacks of corn that were found … and other loot … “.
  • The Ogden Land Company purchased Seneca land in New York in a transaction characterized as “blatantly corrupt” by all participants.
  • Iowa Territory was formed form part of Wisconsin Territory.
  • Congress adopted "gag resolutions" against anti-slavery petitions and motions.
  • U.S. troops forcibly moved the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to Indian Territory (eastern Oklahoma).
  • Some northern states passed Personal Liberty Laws, which obstructed the Fugitive Slave Act. Southern slaves developed a system of escape routes to the North, known as the Underground Railroad.
  • Poltical reform movement known as Chartism began in Great Britain, seeking more power for laborers and parliamentary reform.
  • Boers defeated the Zulus at the Battle of Blood River, Natal.
  • British helped the Afghans repulse an attack by the Persians against Heart, Afghanistan.
  • Ottoman Sultan, supported by Russia, forced the repeal of Serbia's constitution and established a ruling senate with complete power.
  • Frances Anne Kemble wrote Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation in 1838-1839, which contained an account of contemporary black music.
  • T. Cole painted "Shroon Mountain Adirondacks", a Hudson River School classic.
  • Sully went to London to paint a life-sized portrait of Queen Victoria.
  • Dicken's novel Nicholas Nickleby, appeared in serial form.
  • Thorvaldsen completed "Christ and the Twelve Apostles", his most famous sculpture.
  • Soprano Jenny Lind, known as the "Swedish Nightingale", was a smash hit in her debut as Agathe in Weber's Der Freischutz at the Stocholm Royal Theater.
  • Brentano published one of his most popular works, a fairy tale entitled Gockel, Hinkel und Gackeleia.
  • Morse introduced the Morse code.
  • Charles A. Spencer, New York scientist, made America's first microscope.
  • John Torrey and Asa Gray published Flora of North America.
  • Chauncey Jerome, Connecticut Clockmaker, invented a one-day, brass movement clock that was so inexpensive and accurate that it soon flooded the British and American markets and gave rise to the expression, "Yankee ingenuity".
  • Lyell published Elements of Geology.
  • Steamer Moselle explodes on the Ohio River near Cincinnati, killing 100 people.
  • Charles Wilkins (for the U.S. Navy) sailed on a 6-vessel expedition to the Pacific Ocean and the South Seas. During the 4-year voyage, he discovered that the land in the Antarctic Ocean was actually a continent.
  • French Philosopher, Auguste Comte, gave the basic social science of Sociology its name.
  • First traveling post office operated between Birmingham and Liverpool, England.
   
1839
  • Jan 5 - Simon Elias, Chihuahua, Mexico, wrote the Governor and Comandante-General of New Mexico, that in response to the Governor’s request, two expeditions consisting of 300 men each were ready to leave Chihuahua on January 5 to campaign against the Navajos. On January 4, 1100 troops had returned to Chihuahua. They had departed that city on September 13 of the previous year to campaign against the Navajos. Elias also informed the Governor that the President of Mexico was well pleased with the success of the September-October Navajo campaign.
  • Jan 27 - Governor Armijo disapproved the abandonment of the Ojo Caliente region by 12 Mexican families who wished to remove to Taos or the San Juan River because of the frequent Navajo incursions into their area. The Governor felt that their departure would leave that frontier unprotected.
  • April 19 - In a circular to the Prefects of the First and Second Districts of New Mexico, the Governor gave notice that he had gone to the Navajos for a peace which they had solicited after killing a Laguna shepherd and committing other depredations.
  • April 26 - The Governor notified the Prefects that the Navajos had asked for peace many times, even through Ute ambassadors, and that on this day, two Navajos came to Santa Fe to solicit from him an order that the Pueblo Indians not kill Navajos who came as ambassadors of peace. The Governor announced that the treacherous Navajos could send ambassadors of peace to Jemez only for they could not be trusted to enter other Pueblos, for in the past they had entered under the guise of peace and then had turned on the people.
  • May 29 - It was reported by the Justice at Cebolleta that a party of Indians (Lagunas?) stole out with the object of robbing the Navajos in their camps, but at the same time the Justice dispatched another party in pursuit after them to force their return to face punishment.
  • June 28 - After leaving that one Senor Saavedra and others were involved in illegal trade with the Navajos; and that one death had already resulted from this contraband traffic, Governor Armijo ordered Don Antonio Sandoval, Prefect of the Second District, to see that all illegal traffic in trade ceased.
  • July 12 - Miguel Garcia de Noreiga, soldier and Navajo interpreter at Jemez for many years, died.
  • July 15 - A treaty between the Republic of Mexico and the Navajo Nation was negotiated at Jemez. Chief Cayetano and six other Navajo headmen represented the tribe. The treaty provided for the establishment of peace, a renewal of trade between the Mexicans and the Navajos, and the surrender of all captives held by the Navajos. Article Seven of the treaty provided for a mutual defense alliance. On the same day, Governor Armijo also appointed Prefect Antonio Sandoval of Albuquerque to govern the Navajos.
  • Sept 7 - Referring to the mutual defense alliance contained in Article Seven of the July 15 Treaty, a circular was issued to the effect that if notice of threatened hostilities should be received, the Justices should issue notice as quickly and secretly as possible. Jemez, Abiquiu, and Cebolleta were considered the most likely places for hostilities to begin.
  • Sept 24 - The Governor wrote Prefect Don Antonio Sandoval that he had received notice that the Navajos had started hostilities, and that they had “killed a man in the vicinity of Cebolleta, have robbed animals, … “ and that it was rumored that the Navajos were ready to start a war immediately.
  • Oct 13 - A Mexican expedition consisting of two divisions, one under the command of Citizen Manuel Chavez, Coronel de Milicias Rurales, the other under Don Juan Andrés Archuleta, Teniente Coronel Sub-Inspector, operated against the Navajos between October 13 and December 31 in the regions of Pueblo Colorado, the Canyon de Chelly, Black Mesa, and the Carrizo Mountains, with extended operations in the areas of the Black Creek Valley, Zuni, and the Rito Quemado on the south, and in the La Plata, Las Animas, Canyon Largo, and El Capulin areas to the north. The forces under Manuel Chavez command killed more than 20 warriors and two women, released one Mexican held captive, and captured 8511 sheep, 190 horses and mules plus the horse herd from the rancheria of a warrior they killed, and took some six captives. Archuleta’s troops killed 10 warriors, and two women, took one women captive, 32 horses, and 742 sheep.
  • Oct 28 - While camped near Kinliichee, Arizona, the horse herd of the division of the Mexican expedition against the Navajos commanded by Ciudadano Manuel Chavez was stampeded during the night, and the Navajos drove off 40 of the animals.
  • Nov 4 - While the Mexican troops were in the field campaigning against the Navajos, Governor Armijo issued a circular stating that in spite of the recently concluded treaty, the Navajos had again declared war. The Governor warned the people of the Pueblos and villages that they would be descended upon, robbed, and killed unless they were alerted and prepared for action.
  • Nov 8 - The forces of the expedition commanded by Manuel Chavez and Juan Andrés Archuleta laid siege to a fortified mesa between the Canyon de Chelly and the Carrizo Mountains on which many Navajos and their families were located and defending. After several days and many unsuccessful attempts to ascend and overcome the Navajos, the Mexicans retreated.
  • Nov 30 - A Navajo boy, 8 months old, was baptized at Albuquerque. The same day, he died. During the same year, Navajo captives, servants, and others were baptized at Sandia, Socorro, Taos, Santa Fe, and others at Albuquerque.
  • Dec 4 - Sixteen adult male citizens, residents of Belen and Sausal, killed by “los Enemigos Nabajoes”, were given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest Rafael Ortiz at Belen. The day before, December 3, two Mexicans killed by Navajos, had been buried by the Priest at Tome, and on December 7, another victim of Navajo attack was buried at Tome.
  • Maine tried to prevent Canadian lumbering in Aroostock territory claimed by both Maine and New Brunswick. So-called Arrostock War was averted by an agreement to refer the dispute to a boundary commission.
  • Liberty Party, the first anti-slavery party, held national convention in Warsaw, New York.
  • France recognized Texas independence.
  • Political conflict and civil war ended the Central American Federation ,which dissolves into the states of Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica.
  • Chilean forces at the Battle of Yungay, ended the Peru-Bolivia confederation.
  • Parliament rejected Chartist petition. Riots in Birmingham and elsewhere in Great Britain led to the arrest of Chartist leaders.
  • Dutch recognized the independence of Belgium. Luxembourg and Limburg are divided between the Dutch and Belgian crowns.
  • Ibrahim Pasha defeated Turkish forces; Turkish fleet surrendered to Muhammad Ali of Egypt.
  • 1839-1842 - First Opium War in China between Great Britain and China. Cession of Hong Kong to the British. Although the Chinese government had outlawed opium, and thereby prohibited the importation of it, British traders in Canton conducted a thriving trade in the illegal drug. When 20,000 chests of opium were confiscated by Chinese port officials in Canton from British ships, war broke out between British and Chinese troops, which China quickly lost, China was forced to cede Hong Kong to the British, pay a huge indemnity, and open five additional ports to British traders.
  • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow published the Romantic novel Hyperion and the book of poems, Voices of the Night.
  • Richard Upjohn designed the Gothic Revival Trinity Church in New York City.
  • R. Mills designed the U.S. Patent Office building.
  • Stendhal published The Charterhouse of Parma, a popular Romantic novel.
  • Berlioz completed the choral symphony, Roméo et Juliette.
  • Charles Goodyear, Connecticut inventor, produced vulcanized rubber when he accidentally spilled Indian rubber and sulfur on a hot stove. (Patented in 1844).
  • Audubon published Birds of North America.
  • Harvard Astronomical Observatory was established with William Bond as Director. A 15-in. refracting telescope was added in 1847.
  • Isaac Babbitt, Massachusetts inventor, produced Babbitt metal, an alloy used for lining bearings.
  • Baltimore College of Dental Surgery opened.
  • Darwin summarized his trip in Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by HMS Beagle, 1832-36.
  • Carl Gustav, Mosander, Swedist Chemist, discovered the element lanthanum.
  • Schwann described the cell as the basic unit of life.
  • Louis Daguerre, French Physicist, invented the daguerreotype process, the first form of photography.
  • John Lowell Jr., founded the Lowell Institute in Boston to provide free public lectures by eminent scholars.
  • First baseball diamond was laid out at Cooperstown, New York, by Abner Doubleday.
  • First "normal" school was started in Lexington Massachusetts, offering a two-year course to high school graduates preparing to be teachers.
  • Josephine Amelia Perkins was the first lady horse thief on record. Born in England, she stole her first horse from her father. In America, her career developed. She was eventually jailed.
  • American traveler John Lloyd Stephens discovered and examined (along with Frederick Catherwood) the antiquities of the ancient Mayan culture in Central America.
  • Henley Royal regatta, a rowing race, was established at Henley-on-Thames, England.
  • First Grand National (steeple-chase) race was run at Aintree, England.
  • Scottish inventor, Kirkpatrick Macmillan built an early model of the bicycle.
  • Prussia restricted child labor to a maximum of 10 hours a day.
   
1840
  • Feb 12 - Jose Pino, an adult male, was given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest at Tome. He had been killed by Navajos.
  • July 2 - Guadalupe Miranda, Secretary to the Governor, advised Don Jose Dolores Madrid, Treasurer and Administrator of the Public Treasury of New Mexico, that “There has been notice of an approaching caravan of New Mexican traders from the United States. The Governor wishes to use the money from their imports for another campaign against the Navajos. A listing of the cargo and appraisals is to be made”.
  • July 19 - Pedro Leon Lujan, Abiquiu, wrote the Sub-Inspector of the Rurales, Don Juan Andrés Archuleta, that on this night two Navajos, sent by the Navajo Chief Cayetanito, arrived at his home to report that the entire Navajo Nation was gathered at the Rio Puerco and were anxious for peace and wished to consult with the Mexicans.
  • Aug 22 - At sunset, Navajos raided the town of Sabinal on the Rio Grande taking 90 head of stock, killing two men and one woman and wounding two other men and a woman. They were pursued by Lt. Francisco Chaves with most of the available mounted men to the Ojo de la Jara (Arrow Spring), where they were compelled to give up the chase because their mounts were exhausted and they lacked supplies for further pursuit.
  • Aug 29 - The Comandante-General advised Colonel Mariano Chaves, Inspector of Militia, that because of recent Navajo incursions at Sabinal and on the Pueblo of Jemez, the Governor had advised that another war against the Navajos should be made and that 500 men should come from the district of the south and 500 more would be raised in the northern district. Tentative date set for the campaign was September 15, 1840.
  • Sept 18 - Governor Armijo reported to the Minster of War and Navy in Mexico, that citizen Don Juan Ramirez of Cebolleta led 60 residents of that area in an attack upon the Navajos some time after September 18. The battle took place at Laguna Colorado on the rancheria of the Navajo Chief Cebolla (Sandoval), who the Governor blamed as being largely responsible for there not having been established a peace. Ramirez put the Navajos to flight, captured Navajos of both sexes, 26 horses, one mule, took all their goods, and rescued one Mexican captive.
  • Oct 11 - An expedition led by Captains Jose Salazar and Jose Francisco Vigil, each commanding a company of 500 auxiliaries and rurales, made a surprise attack the night of October 11 upon Navajos located on top of a fortified mesa 600 varas (yards) high with only limited access trails. Eighteen Mexicans reached the top without being detected by the Navajo sentinels. After the remaining troops gained ascent, they killed 33 warriors, made captives of 14 Navajos of both sexes, captured 39 horses as well as a great quantity of buckskins, blankets, 200 fanegas of corn, and other booty, burning that which they could not take with them. The Navajo Chief, Jose Largo, who was taken prisoner, asked for a truce in the war in order to negotiate a peace. Many Navajos hurled themselves over the cliff rather than be taken captive. In his account of the campaign, Governor Armijo added: “On this same mesa that now was defeated with greatest joy, in the year 1818, the Governor at that time, Colonel Don Facundo Melgares, maintained a siege of 40 and some days, and after all that time, he did not attain its surrender, … “.
  • Oct 13 - Antonio Chavez, adult resident of Valencia, was given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest at Tome. He had been killed by the Navajos. The following day, another resident of Valencia, Jose de Jesus Otero, also killed by Navajos, was buried by the Priest at Tome.
  • Dec 14 - Navajos held a Naach’id Ceremony west of Canyon de Chelly for the purpose of making peace with the Mexicans. On this date, Jose Andrés Sandoval, Justice at Jemez, reported to the Governor: “At nightfall of this day a Navajo known as Anceluno presented himself in this pueblo soliciting peace in the name of his nation, … “ The emissary along with the Navajo, Jasis (who did not arrive), had been sent by the son-in-law of Chief Narbona, and reported that if things went favorably, Narbona and other “ … Chieftains might come next January to actually complete the peace”.
  • Dec 22 - Navajos raided Jemez and drove off 11 animals.
  • Antislavery and Abolition movement gained momentum in the U.S. The Underground Railroad was organized in the border and northern states to help slaves flee the South. Thousands of escaped slaves reached the northern cities of Philadelphia, Boston, and New York, and told of extraordinary brutality of the new plantations of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. Narratives of runaway slaves became popular in the North as a means of dramatizing the condition of slavery, and made slavery a national issue. Debate centered around the opening of new lands in the West, and whether those new states would be “slave or free.” Slaves by the thousands began risking escape from plantations in Virginia and the Carolinas rather than face being “sold south” to the new cotton plantations in Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana, created from the lands recently vacated by the south-eastern American Indians.
  • U.S., Britain, Holland, and Belgium, recognized Texas independence.
  • The U.S. Congress enacted Independent Treasury Act, establishing subtreasuries for the deposit of federal funds in major U.S. cities. All government payments were to be in species (coined money) by 1843.
  • William Henry Harrison (Whig) was elected U.S. President, using the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too". John Tyler (Whig) became U.S. Vice-President.
  • Muhammed Ali rejected terms of the Treaty of London. United European opposition forced him to return the Turkish fleet and to give up claim to Syria, in return for hereditary rule in Egypt.
  • British Parliament united Upper and Lower Canada under one government by the Act of Union.
  • Pedro II is declared Emperor of Brazil. His reign was a period of order and material progress.
  • Rafael Carrera became dictator of Guatemala.
  • British captured Chusan and Canton River forts in China.
  • Dost Muhammad of Afghanistan waged war against the British, who restored Shah Shuja to the throne.
  • Sculptor Horatio Greenough executed a statue of Washington in the Neoclassical style. Public outrage at the sandaled and semiclad depiction of the first President prevented the statue from being placed in the Capitol building.
  • Cooper published The Pathfinder, the fourth "Leatherstocking Tale".
  • Poe published Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque, which included his famous work, "The Fall of the House of Usher".
  • Prosper Mérimée, French Writer, known for his classical treatment of Romantic themes, published Colomba, a popular novella.
  • Concerned about the possibility of a French invasion, German Poet, Max Schneckenburger wrote "Die Wacht am Rhein" (Watch on the Rhine". When music was added in 1854 by Karl Wilhelm, it became a popular patriotic song.
  • Mikhail Uuryevich Lermontov, Russia's greatest Romantic Poet, published A Hero of Our Times, a realistic novel influential in the development of Russian prose.
  • Donizetti composed The Daughter of the Regiment, a comic opera.
  • The American Society of Dental Surgeons was organized in New York City.
  • John W. Draper, English-American Chemist, took the first photographs of the Moon.
  • Graphite was produced commercially in Ticonderoga, New York.
  • James Joule, English Physicist, published On the Production of Heat By Voltaic Electricity, in which the Joule effect was introduced.
  • An order by the U.S. President, established the 10-hour day for federal employees. This has long been a goal of U.S. labor.
  • First use of the expression O.K.. It referred to "Old Kinderhook", birthplace of President Martina Van Buren, and was the name of a Democratic Club in New York City.
  • Steamboat Lexington caught fire near Eaton's Neck, New York; 140 people died.
  • First steamship line with scheduled transatlantic sailings was established by Samuel Cunard, a Canadian.
  • Sixth national census showed a population of more than 17 million. About 600,000 immigrants had arrived since 1830.
  • Emigration from Great Britain to the U.S. for the past 10 years was 75,810; from Ireland 207,381.
  • Rowland Hill established the penny post for letters under 1/2 ounce to any point in the United Kingdom. This replaced the earlier system of charging by size, shape, and weight of letters.
   
1841
  • Jan 5 - A Navajo visited Jemez Pueblo to ask if it were true that Governor Armijo was disposed to discuss peace with the Navajos. He stated also the Chief Narbona, with more than 30 Navajos and some women, was on the Mesita Azul (Chacra Mesa), and that on January 8, he would come to Jemez and proceed from there to Santa Fe in order to confer with the Governor.
  • Jan 25 - Governor Armijo wrote the Minister of War and Navy in Mexico that many Navajo emissaries had approached him asking for peace. Chief Narbona assured the Governor that the entire Navajo Nation desired peace in good faith. Narbona also promised to return all Mexicans held captive and agreed to refrain from molesting travelers on the road to El Paso or elsewhere. The Navajos agreed to return in 25 days from this date to negotiate a peace treaty at Santo Domingo.
  • March 10 - Navajo Chiefs Narbona, Jose Tapia, Cebolla Sandoval, and James Tuna, son of Cayetano, with 100 warriors departed from Jemez to go to Santo Domingo where peace negotiations were to be held. In the meantime Governor Armijo, unable to attend the negotiations due to ill health, sent to Santo Domingo a list of treaty conditions to which the Navajos would have to submit. These included that there would be peace and commerce when the Navajo Tribe fulfilled its promises; that the Navajos be obligated to hand over all Mexican captives that might be among them “without demanding equal recompense”; that “the Navajo Chieftains will try by all means within their power to prevent Indians of their nations from committing murders among our citizens, remaining obligated, when it is proven, to hand over the killer or killers so that they may be punished in conformance with our laws, the government being obligated in case our (people) commit them with them, only to pay a certain fee”; that no efforts would be made to reclaim captives who escaped either from the Navajos or the Mexicans; and that four Chieftains would be named from among the Navajos by popular consent, these to be given a small gratification from the government’s account to act as ambassadors of the tribe.
  • March 14 - Francisco Sandoval at San Ysidro advised Governor Armijo that negotiations for a peace treaty had been carried out with the Navajos at Santa Domingo, but that the Navajos were dissatisfied at having to treat with a man they did not know. The treaty was not concluded and negotiations were unsuccessful as the Navajos were further dissatisfied because at no time during the last ten times the Navajos had relinquished captives, had the Mexicans returned theirs. They asked that Navajo captives be returned to them either at Jemez or at Chaco Canyon. Subsequent negotiations by Governor Armijo did, however, result in a peace treaty which was concluded sometime before May 8, 1841.
  • March 26 - Governor Armijo advised the Commander of the Frontier at Jemez that he was pleased with the comportment of the Navajo Chief, Cebolla Sandoval, and the good work he was accomplishing in his nation to establish peace with the Mexicans, and that if effective, he would offer him equal recognition as the Navajo, Francisco Baca, and would treat him with equal confidence. Chiefs Sandoval and Narbona visited Navajo encampments in an effort to encourage the Navajos to agree to peace, Chief Jose Largo and his group, however, went south temporarily to the Apache country.
  • April 6 - Francisco Sandoval informed Governor Armijo that two Navajos, sent by Chiefs Armijo and Narbona, appeared at Jemez to inquire as to the intentions of the Mexicans regarding the peace plan. Chief Armijo had been to the Navajo rancherias exhorting them to accept the terms offered by the Governor during the previous month. It was also reported that the Navajos were at war with the Utes.
  • April 28 - A Navajo girl, 11 or 12 years old, bought from the Navajos by Prudencio Tania, was baptized at Bernalillo by the Priest from Isleta. During the same year, Navajo captives and others were baptized at Santa Fe, Valencia, Isleta, Albuquerque, Abiquiu, and Laguna.
  • May 8 - A treaty was concluded at the Pueblo of Santo Domingo between the Republic of Mexico and the Navajo Nation some time between April 6 and May 8, 1841. Negotiations had begun as early as December, 1840. If the terms drawn up by Governor Armijo in March were accepted, then the provisions included peace and commerce between the parties involved, Navajos to hand over all Spanish and Mexican captives “without demanding equal recompense”; to cease all depredations and those who do commit depredations to be delivered over for punishment; Navajo captives who escape will not be pursued or reclaimed; and four Chiefs to be elected to represent the tribe.
  • May 13 - After conclusion of the recent peace treaty with the Navajos, Governor Armijo requested authority from the President, through the Minister of War and Navy of Mexico, to make an expedition into Navajo country and “ … to go down as far as the Gila River and Mogollon, land that the Apaches inhabit and it is contiguous to that of the Navajo, … “. The governor proposed the expedition “ … now that the enemy is at peace .. “ to reconnoiter their water holes and the places “ … to which they retire with their families and livestock to hide them when they are at war; … “ the result of the expedition to be “ … that when the Barbarians see that their strongholds are known, they would consider themselves insecure, and this same (thing) would make them afraid, so that the peace will not be violated … “. Such knowledge, secured during a time of peace, would also greatly aid the Mexicans in time of war.
  • Aug 30 - Jose Largo, apparently now returned from the Apache country, and two Navajo emissaries from the Navajo Chief Armijo, presented themselves before Juan Garcia, Justice of Cebolleta, with 8 horses and 80 sheep which they agreed to deliver either to Cubero or Laguna as payment for a Cochiti Indian recently killed by Navajos. They had some from Canyon de Chelly but declined to take the stock to Jemez because they feared meeting hostile Utes.
  • Sept 7 - Governor Armijo informed the Minister of War and Navy in Mexico that the major Indian problems in new Mexico were perpetrated by the “Nations called Yutas, Navajoes, Timpanagos, Palliuches, Apaches, Jicarrilas, Mescaleros, Jilenos, Membrenos, Caguas, Comanches. Comoperros or Como Perros, Arapajos, Pata Negras, Champes, Barrigones, Pananas, Aa, and others … “ and the Navajos particularly gave him the most trouble.
  • George Catlin published Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of the North American Indians, Written During Eight Years’ Travel Amongst the Wildest Tribes of Indians in North America. Catlin, an Artist and pioneer Ethnologist, traveled among the western American Indian tribes without government or private support, painting the Plains Indians. His paintings are some of the best records of 19th century Plains Indian life. Catlin wrote: “The history and customs of such a people are themes worthy of the lifetime of one man, and nothing short of the loss of my life, shall prevent me from visiting their country and of becoming their historian.”
  • Harrison died one month after inauguration. Tyler became first U.S. Vice-President to succeed to Presidency.
  • Tyler twice vetoed a bill to create a national bank with state branches. Whigs denounced Tyler, whose entire Cabinet except for Daniel Webster resigned.
  • The U.S. Congress passed the Preemption Act. Settlers on surveyed government land have the right, after about 14 months of residency, to buy it before anyone else can.
  • New Zealand was made a separate British colony.
  • Britain, France, Austria, Russian, and Prussia, agree to close the Straits (Bosporus and Dardanelles) to all but Turkish warships in time of peace.
  • British seized the Hong Kong and Chinkiang on the Grand Canal.
  • Peru made an unsuccessful attempt to annex Bolivian territory.
  • General Baldomero Espartero was made a regent by the Cortes (Parliament) and became virtual dictator of Spain.
  • Andrew Jackson Downing, Horticulturist and Architect, published Treatise on Landscape Gardening, which emphasized the relationship between a dwelling and its surroundings.
  • Cooper published The Deerslayer, the fifth "Leatherstocking Tale".
  • James Russell Lowell, Writer and Poet, published A Year's Life, a work inspired by his wife, Poetess Maria White.
  • Longfellow published Ballads and Other Poems, which included "The Wreck of the Hesperus".
  • R. Browining published "Pippa Passes", a dramatic idyll.
  • Schumann composes Symphony No. 1 in B Flat Major (revised in 1851) and Symphony No. 4 in D Minor (Spring Symphony).
  • Dickens published The Old Curiosity Shop and Barnaby Rudge.
  • Italy's prima ballerina, Carlotta Grisi, danced the title role in Giselle, and outstanding ballet written by Adolphe Adam and Théophile Gautier, choreographed by Jean Corelli and Jules Perrot.
  • Hitchcock completed a second, more detailed geological survey of Massachusetts.
  • Coke, a coal product, was manufactured in Connellsville, Pennsylvania.
  • James Braid, English Surgeon, investigated the therapeutic value of hypnosis.
  • Sir Joseph Whitworth, English Engineer, devised the standard screw thread.
  • Earliest commercial use of oil began about this time. "Rock oil" skimmed from the surface of streams in northwestern Pennsylvania was renamed "Seneca Oil", and sold as patent or "Indian" medicine.
  • The steamboat Erie burned on Lake Erie; 175 persons were killed.
  • New York Tribune was published by Horace Greeley. It became the most influential newspaper in the North and West, until the Civil War.
  • George Ripley, a Unitarian Minister and a Transcendentalist founded Brook Farm, a cooperative program based on an economy of farming and handcrafts, in West Roxbury, Massachusetts.
  • Ross led an expedition to Antarctica and took possession for Great Britain of all of the continental land and islands he discovered.
  • First law was passed protecting workers in France.
  • Earthquake in Shinano, Japan, killed about 12,000 people.
  • Punch an illustrated periodical, was published in London. It became famous for its satiric humor, caricatures, and cartoons.
  • Travel agent Thomas Cook led his first tour from England to Europe.
   
1842
  • Feb 17 - Jose Andrés Sandoval, Justice at Jemez, informed the Secretary, Don Guadalupe Miranda, that it had been reported that the Navajos were planning another war against the Mexicans. He had learned this from the inhabitants of Jemez Pueblo and from ranchers nearby where a Nvajo had recently visited.
  • July 31 - Governor Armijo’s Fondo de Aliados (Fund for the Allies) of this date indicated that when the Navajo Chieftains Cebolla Sandoval and Jose Largo visited him in Santa Fe during the month of July, he had fed them from provisions provided for this purpose.
  • Sept 26 - A Navajo about 18 years old, belonging to the Mexican Don Mateo Sandoval, was baptized in Santa Fe. Earlier the same year, a Navajo girl belonging to Don Manuel Doroteo Pino had been baptized at Tome.
  • Oct 17 - The Justice of Abiquiu informed the Prefect of the First District that Navajos stole some horses from Citizen Miguel Antonio Romero. Being unsuccessful in reclaiming them, troops were requested, but the Justice was told that none were available. Two days later, October 19, the Governor ordered Prefect Archuleta to kill any Navajo caught stealing.
  • Seneca Indians moved to the Allegheny and Cattaraugus Indian Reservations.
  • U.S. troops, after destroying the Seminoles' crops and villages, forced the Indians to sign a peace treaty. Seminoles were moved to Indian Territory in eastern Oklahoma.
  • Dorr's Rebellion in Rhode Island led to new state constitution with liberalization of voting requirements.
  • The Webster-Ashburton Treaty between the U.S. and Britain ended Northeast boundary dispute and established the U.S.-Canadian border from Maine to Lake of the Woods (northern Minnesota).
  • The U.S. Congress passed the Whig tariff law with high protective levels.
  • The British Parliament rejected the second Chartist petition.
  • The French made treaties with the native Chiefs of the Ivory Coast.
  • The British repulsed the Boers in Natal, South Africa, and reestablished control.
  • The Afghans massacred British and Indian troops and murdered Shah Shuja. Dost Muhammad again ascended the throne at Kabul after the British evacuation of Afghanistan.
  • The Treaty of Nanking ended the Opium War. China cedes Hong Kong to Britain and opened its ports to foreign trade.
  • Emerson became Editor of The Dial, the influential publication of the Transcendentalist movement.
  • Showman Edwin P. Christy founded the Christy Minstrels.
  • The New York Philharmonic was founded. It was the oldest symphony orchestra in America.
  • German Romantic Composer, Richard Wagner, successfully staged his opera, Rienzi, in Dresden.
  • Some of Tennyson's best works were included in Poems: "Locksley Hall", "Morte d'Arthur", "Ulysses", etc.
  • French Artist, Theordore Rousseau, established the Barbizon school of landscape painting with "Under the Birches Evening".
  • French Novelist, Eugene Sue, published Lew Mystéres de Paris, a sensational bestseller that described the Paris underworld.
  • Crawford Long, Georgia Physician, performed the first successful surgery on a patient anesthetized with ether, but did not publicize his result until 1849.
  • Samuel Dana, New Hamshire Chemist, described the usefulness of phosphates (in manure) as a fertilizer.
  • Henry discovered the oscillatory (back and forth movement) nature of an electrical discharge. He also experimented with wireless communication.
  • James Bogardus, New York inventor, designed a dry gas meter.
  • Matthew F. Maury, Virginia Oceanographer, charted ocean currents.
  • Christian Coppler, Austrian Physicist, stated the Doppler effect, which related the frequency of a sound or light wave to motion.
  • Darwin published Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs.
  • Anders Adolf Retzius, Swedist Anatomist and Anthroplogist, proposed the cranial index, a method of determing race by skull size.
  • Lord William Thompson Kelvin, British Scientist, published On the Uniform Motion of Heat in Homogeneous Solid Bodies.
  • Herman von Helmholtz, German Physicist, wrote on the relation between nerve fibers and nerve cells.
  • Werner von Siemens, German Scientist, invented an electroplating process.
  • Horse racing at the Union Course on Long Island, New York, attracted thousands of spectators, "Fashion" (the North's entry) beat "Boston" (the South's entry) for a purse of $20,000.
  • Massachusetts law regulated the workday for children less than 12 years. They were limited to a 10-hour workday.
  • Barnum's American Museum opened in New York City. P.T. Barnum exhibited General Tom Thumb and other freaks as well as many hoaxes, attracting the public with extravagant advertising.
  • Explorer John Frémont led an expedition to explore the route to Oregon beyond the Mississippi River, as far as South Pass in Wyoming.
  • Fire destroyed much of Hamburg, Germany; damaged reached $35 million.
  • Illustrated World was published weekly in London. It was the first periodical to make extensive use of woodcuts and engravings.
  • Mine Act in England forbade women and children to work in mines.
  • First Law of Theromodynamics presented. Julius von Mayer proposed that the total amount of energy in the universe is constant and that in natural processes, energy is never lost, but merely transformed from one kind to another.
   
1843
  • June 1 - Navajos attacked the settlement of Los Chaves, Jurisdictionof Belen, taking from Don Jose Chaves cows and other stock amounting to 500. Chief Juan Cristoval Chaque participated in the raid. A guard composed of citizens from Cebolleta to Socorro was formed to stop the Nvajos entering and leaving the area.
  • June 3 - Navajos raided on the frontier of Jemez taking 50 horses and cows. Mexicans were unable to pursue them due to lack of mounts. The Jurisdictions of Cochiti and Bernalillo were warned that they should furnish 12 men each to guard the various passages to the settlements from Navajo country. On the same date, Sarracino informed the Governor that the Navajo Chieftains Sarcillos Largos, Juan Chavez, El Facundo, and five other leading headmen, had declared themselves against war and had asked that the Sierra de Zuni, El Oso, and the Chuska Mountains, be assigned to them in order that they might separate their people from the thieves of the tribes. They also offered to ally their groups with the Mexicans in campaign against the bad element of their nation.
  • July 19 - It was reported that Navajos recently raided in the vicinity of Ojo Caliente committing robberies and killing some Mexicans, and the Inspector was advised to guard closely all points of entry about the area.
  • Sept 3 - Juan Jose Lucero departed from Cebolleta, and Captain Jose Francisco Vigil set out from Abiquiu with troops on a campaign against the Navajos in which they killed 15 warriors, took 22 prisoners of both sexes, recovered two Mexicans held captive, and captured 300 or more cattle, a number of horses, and some 13,000 to 15,000 sheep and goats.
  • Sept 28 - A Navajo girl, held as servant of Jose Miguel Baca, was baptized at La Parida near Socorro and given the Christian name of Maria del Rosario. In the same year, Navajo servants and others were baptized at San Felipe Pueblo and at Valencia near Tome.
  • Nov 20 - Five adult male citizens of San Miguel del Vado on the Pecos River, killed by Navajos in a recent attack in that area, were given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest Jose Francisco Leyva
  • Nov 28 - Father Antonio Jose Martinez, Curator of Taos, New Mexico, made a statement to the Governor relative to the civilization of the wild tribes of New Mexico, in which he said: “ … the Navajo tribe, unfortunately the most ferocious and the most faithless in their treaties of peace, whenever they happen to make any … It has always been observed that when the Navajo tribes were at peace with our government, they always seldom lasted longer. This tribe is the only laborious one in raising stock, in agriculture, and in various other industries. Regularly, however, they wander to make invasions in the country and wage war against our people. The time employed in these raids is necessarily lost to labor; the fields left uncultivated do not produce enough for their maintenance; and the result is, that, unable to live on the production of the soil alone, they have recourse to pillage also … What has been the success of the raids made by Indians in the various villages or settlements during the present year, … ? The Navajoes have killed men and women, brought some of the two sexes into captivity, as they did in the valleys of Lobato, Rio Colorado, and in other vicinities of Santa Fe, the capital, and on the outskirts and parts of Rio Abajo … “
  • Dec 11 - The President of the Mexican Republic, Santa Ana, extended his thanks and commended all citizens who cooperated in the two recent victorious expeditions against the Navajos led by Juan Jose Lucero and Captain Jose Francisco Vigil. The expedition had begun September 3.
  • U.S. sent diplomatic representatives to Hawaii.
  • Settlers began great migration westward over the Oregon Trail to the Oregon Territory.
  • Mexican President, Santa Anna, declared that U.S. annexation of Texas will mean war with Mexico. British and French intrigues to make Texas an independent buffer state against U.S. expansion arouse U.S. concern. Southerners push for the annexation of Texas.
  • 1843-1845 - First Maori War between the British and Maori tribes of New Zealand. The Maori, who were fierce fighters, objected to the British government’s rapid acquisition of native lands.
  • Uprising in Spain drove General Espartero from power. Isabella II is declared of age as Queen of Spain.
  • Gambia was separated from Sierra Leone and made a separate British colony. Britain annexed Natal to Cape Colony.
  • British take control of the province of Sind in the lower Indus Valley.
  • Serbia’s popular assembly elected Alexander Karageorgevich to the throne.
  • Edgar Allan Poe published the short stories, “The Murders in the Rue Morgue”, “The Pit and the Pendulum”, and “The Tell-Tale Heart”.
  • Dickens published Martin Chuzzlewit and A Christmas Carol.
  • Wordsworth was appointed Poet Laureate of England.
  • English Critic and Artist John Ruskin published the first volume of Modern Painters.
  • Wagner’s Romantic style was shown in the premiere of The Flying Dutchman, an opera.
  • Mendelssohn completed the music to A Midsummer Night’s Dream, including the famous “Wedding March”.
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Massachusetts Physician, suggested that since puerperal fever (a disease associated with childbirth) was so contagious, doctors should be careful not to spread the disease from one patient to the next. He stressed that doctors should put on clean clothes and wash their hands before delivering a baby.
  • Alexander Bache, Pennsylvania Physicist, heads the reorganized U.S. Coast Survey.
  • Congress granted $30,000 for Morse to erect a 40-mile telegraph line between Baltimore and Washington, D.C.
  • A comet appeared over North America sparking new interest in astronomy.
  • Hamilton devised the system of complex numbers based on i, the square root of -1.
  • Samuel H. Schwabe, German Astronomer, discovered that sunspot activity followed an eleven-year cycle.
  • Joule determined the mechanical equivalent of heat (the amount of work necessary to generate a unit of heat).
  • Wheatstone successfully measured electrical resistance with a device later known as the Wheatstone bridge.
  • Rowing was introduced at Harvard when William Weeks, a student, bought and outfitted a shell.
  • Soap powder, “Babbitt’s Best Soap”, was introduced by Benjamin T. Babbitt.
  • Fremont’s second expedition surveyed the route to Oregon and he mapped and named the Great Basin, the independent system of lakes and rivers divided from the ocean by the mountains.
  • New word, millionaire, was used by newspapers for the first time in reporting the death of Pierre Lorillard, Banker and Tobacco Grower.
  • First workers’ cooperative societies, called Pioneers of Rochedale, were organized in England.
  • British Archaeological Association and the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain were founded.
  • Scottish church leader, Thomas Chalmers, led the Scottish Disruption when 474 clergy withdrew from the general assembly to form the United Free Church of Scotland.
  • Danish Philosopher, Soren Kierkegaard, preached a religion of acceptance and suffering on the part of the individual; his teaching was a forerunner of the Philosophy of Existentialism.
   
1844
  • Writing about the year 1844, Josiah Gregg of Santa Fe, described the Navajos: “ … The Navajoes are supposed to number about 10,000 souls, and though not the most numerous, they are certainly the most important, at least in historical point of view, of all the northern tribe of Mexico. They reside in the main range of Cordilleras, 150 to 200 miles west of Santa Fe, on the waters of Rio Colorado of California, … They now also manufacture a singular species of blanket, known as the Sarape Navajo, which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each. Norwithstanding the present predatory and somewhat unsettled habits of the Navajoes, they cultivate all the different grains and vegetables to be found in New Mexico. They also possess extensive herds of horses, mules, cattle, sheep and goats of their own raising which are generally celebrated as being much superior to those of the Mexicans; owing, no doubt to greater attention to the improvement of their stocks. Though Baron Humboldt tells us that some missionaries were established among this tribe prior to the general massacre of 1680, but few attempts to christianize them have since been made. They now remain in a state of primitive paganism - and not only independent of the Mexicans, but their most formidable enemies. After the establishment of the national independence, the government of New Mexico greatly embittered the disposition of the neighboring savages, especially the Navajoes, by repeated acts of cruelty and ill-faith well calculated to provoke hostilities … It is also related, that … three Indians from the northern mountain having been brought as prisoners into Taos, they were peremptorily demanded by the Jicarillas, who were their bitterest enemies; when the Mexican authorities, dreading the resentment of this tribe (Jicarillas), quietly complied with the barbarous request, suffering the (Navajo) prisoners to be butchered in cold blood before their very eyes! No wonder, then, that the New Mexicans are so generally warred upon by their savage neighbors … “
  • Jan 15 - By order of the Comandante-General of New Mexico, it was prohibited for any Mexican or Spanish community or settlement to make treaties with the Navajos. Commerce with the tribe was also prohibited, and existing peace treaties with them were suspended.
  • Jan 22 - The Comandante-General of New Mexico ordered the Military Commander at Jemez to arrange to have Navajo Chiefs El Huero and Cebolla Sandoval present themselves at Santa Fe” … to celebrate the peace which the tribe solicits”. During the same week, the residents of Jemez attacked Navajo rancherias on the outskirts of that pueblo.
  • Jan 27 - The Inspector of the Second District, after requesting advice from the Governor as to whether he should attack the rancheria or Chief Jose Largo, who with his group was ranching in the vicinity of Agua Azul, was advised that he should use his best judgment for the good of the Department, but if he should consider it necessary to attack, to keep the governor informed. In his deposition of 1886, Jose Manuel Sandoval recalled that in 1843, when he herded sheep near Nacimiento, present Cuba, New Mexico, there were no residents “ … but the Navajos and Utes, … “ and on January 27, 1844, it was reported that there were Navajo rancherias “ … in the suburbs of Jemez Pueblo”.
  • Feb 12 - The Governor wrote the Commander of the First District, Juan Andrés Archuleta, that the recent attack led by Citizen Pedro Herrera upon Navajos at Ojo Caliente in which they killed 19 Navajos, took some 18 captives of both sexes, 1800 animals including 1600 sheep, and released one Mexican captive, merited his approval.
  • Feb 26 - Following repeated solicitations of Navajo Chiefs Narbona, El Guero (Huero?), Cabras Muchas, Juan Chavez, Archuleta, and others, Mariano Martinez, Comandante-General of New Mexico, on this date submitted to the Governor for his approval a list of 8 articles or provisions to be incorporated in the treaty to be negotiated at a council set for March 21 at Santo Domingo Pueblo. His list provided for the establishment of peace between the Navajo Tribe and the citizens of New Mexico; the surrender of all captives held by the Navajos but Navajos held captive by the Mexicans would not be returned, although the Navajos would be permitted to ransom them from their masters; the resumption of commerce; the surrender of Navajos who might perpetrate some robbery or murder against the citizenry; that war against the tribe would result if the peace were not kept; Navajo captives who succeeded in escaping would remain free; a mutual defense arrangement; and finally the option of Navajos to settle their rancherias, after approval was granted, in the vicinity of the Mexican towns.
  • March 3 - Navajos raided the Plaza del Barranco upstream from Abiquiu and drove off 14 oxen and three horses and mules. They were pursued to Chaco Mesa by 14 Mexicans, but were not overtaken.
  • March 7 - In preparation for the treaty celebration, Comandante-General Martinez informed the Governor that the Navajos had relinquished some Mexicans held captive by them and that Colonel Archuleta had been advised to return four Navajo captives known to be held in the First District by Captain Don Francisco Vigil.
  • March 23 - Because of their fear of meeting hostile Jicarilla Apaches, the Navajos preferred to meet at Jemez for treaty negotiations, but after some reluctance, they proceeded to Santo Domingo where a treaty was concluded on this date, the terms of which were agreed to by Navajo Chieftains Narbona, El Guero (Huero?), Cabras Muchas, Juan Chavez, and Archuleta. Provisions of the treaty were essentially the same as the list of articles submitted by Comandante-General of the Department, Don Mariano Martinez, on February 26 above, except that Article 7, which provided for a mutual defense agreement, was deleted.
  • April 20 - The Governor believed to be false assertions “ … the malicious claims of the various Navajo Chieftains made for the captives and horses taken from them by the Sahuanos during their last expeditions, … “ and the Navajos’ claim that the Comandante-General promised to rescue and return the captives and stock to them. He further advised the Military Commander at Jemez that if their claims were a pretext to break the peace established, then “ … I will not concede another time without making them live in villages, guarded by a military force, and subject to an authority.”
  • April 23 - Many Navajos arrived in Santa Fe, and to show their good faith in keeping the peace, delivered two Mexican captives over to the authorities. The following day, the Governor ordered that three Navajo captives, a woman and two children believed to have been sold at Abiquiu after capture, be purchased from their owners and returned to the Navajos.
  • April 28 - Mariano Martinez, Comandante-General, ordered 111 pesos paid from the Department Treasury for the return of three captives from the Navajos. He also ordered payment of 175 pesos for gratification to certain Navajo Chieftains.
  • May 7 - Navajos raided into the country north of Santa Fe near Abiquiu, and as a result Mexico was notified that the depredation nullified the Navajo treaty concluded March 23.
  • July 10 - The Prefect of the First District, Don Juan Andrés Archuleta, reported to the Governor that the Navajos and Utes aspired to unite and renew armed conflict against the Spanish and Mexican settlements, and that they had already begun their campaign.
  • July 11 - After hearing that Utes had joined the Navajos to attack the settlements, Juan Andrés Archuleta was ordered by the Governor to enlist 500 men from his district and march to Cubero de la Laguna and from there to march against the Navajos, not to give them battle, but to round them up to discuss further matters relating to a permanent peace.
  • July 17 - The Comandante-General notified Colonels Sarracino and Archuleta that the Navajos continued to commit robberies and murders throughout the Military Department of New Mexico since the peace treaty was celebrated at Santo Domingo on March 23. On the same date, the Military Commander informed the Governor that Navajos “ … robbed 13 cattle from the Rincones de la Mesa … “ but were overtaken at Laguna de los Caballos (Horse Lake) by the Justice of Ojo Caliente and 8 men, “… having killed one Indian and taken the plunder from them that they pursued; … “
  • July 22 - Acting Governor Mariano Martinez de Lejanza reported that when the Navajo Chiefs Cebolla Sandoval and Jose Sarracino recently came to Santa Fe to reaffirm their peaceful intentions, he had quickly ordered them out of the capital because two Comanche “Generals” and some “Captains” had also arrived and the two tribes were reported to be at war.
  • July 26 - Two children “de la Nacion Navajo”, servants of Don Ramon Gutierres, were baptized at Corrales and Albuquerque and given the Christian names of Maria de Los Dolores and Merced de Los Dolores. In the same year, other Navajo captives and servants were baptized at San Juan, Tome, Santa Fe, Isleta Taos, Laguna, Santa Clara, Socorro, and at Albuquerque.
  • Sept 11 - It was reported that the Ute Tribe had more than 3000 warriors, all of who were armed with rifles. The early arming of the Utes contributed in some measure to the later defeat of the poorly armed Navajos and their exile to Fort Sumner.
  • Oct 3 - The Governor learned that Navajo Chiefs Narbona and Cayetano had withdrawn their obedience and had joined the Utes for a possible attack on Jemez Pueblo. The Governor was unable to supply troops to avoid a surprise attack as they were occupied on frontiers to the north, but the Prefect of that district was ordered to organize the pueblo for defense.
  • Oct 10 - Navajos in company with Ute Indians attacked and stole stock from the government horse herd in the vicinity of Fray Cristobal on the Rio Grande. The Comandante-General ordered that a posse of 100 men be assembled and give pursuit.
  • Oct 16 - The Governor ordered that since the Navajo Nation was at peace with the Mexicans, no Navajo captives should be taken and that the daughter of the Navajo Chief Francisco, taken captive the year previously, should be handed over to her father, and the Navajo female which he offered should be received in exchange.
  • Nov 4 - The Justice at Jemez informed the Governor that one Gregorio Mestas had stolen a horse from the Navajos and that they had threatened to attack Jemez in retaliation. The Governor ordered that the criminal Mestas be apprehended and the horse returned to its owners.
  • Nov 16 - The Inspector of Militia of the Third District at Pajarito, New Mexico, was highly commended by the Governor for his pursuit of Navajos who raided the settlements, and for retrieving 16,000 head of stolen sheep from them.
  • U.S. Secretary of State, John C. Calhoun, negotiated a treaty of annexation with Texas government.
  • Britain and the U.S., argued about Oregon boundary, which was unofficially set at latitude 54 degrees 40 minutes North by U.S. settlers.
  • James K. Polk (Democrat) was elected U.S. President; George M. Dallas (Democrat) was elected its Vice-President.
  • U.S. and China signed a treaty of peace, friendship, and commerce.
  • Dominicans successfully revolted against Haitian rule; Santo Domingo (eastern two-thirds of Hispaniola) proclaims its independence as the Dominican Republic.
  • French defeated the Moroccans at the Battle of Isly. Treaty of Tangiers forced the Sultan of Morocco to renounce his ally, the leader of Algeria.
  • Britain’s House of Lords released O’Connell, who was arrested (1843) and convicted for conspiracy in advocating a free Ireland.
  • Stephen Collins Foster, song composer, wrote “Open Thy Lattice, Love”.
  • John Henry Belter, German born furniture maker, introduced the Victorian Rococo furniture style to the U.S.
  • Edgar Allan Poe published the short story, “The Premature Burial”.
  • Chopin attended the European debut of American Pianist, Louis Gottshalk, and predicts his success.
  • Alexandre Dumas pére, French novelist, published The Three Musketeers, a swashbuckling adventure tale.
  • French Painter, Jean-Francois Millet, exhibits “The Milkmaid”.
  • Inspired by Elizabeth Barrett’s Poems, Robert Browning began a correspondence that resulted in their famous courtship and marriage (1846).
  • William Makepeace Thackeray, English Novelist, published Barry Lyndon, a satiricial romance.
  • Morse sent the first telegraph message, “What hath God wrought!” from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore.
  • Charles Wilkes, N.Y. Scientist, published the results of the U.S. Exploring Expedition (1839-42) to Antarctica and the Pacific Northwest.
  • Iron was used for railroad tracks.
  • Darwin published Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands.
  • Coriolis published Treatise on the Mechanics of Solid Bodies.
  • William Siemens, German Scientist, developed a mechanical copying method.
  • Robert Chambers, Scottish Publisher, anonymously described his theory of evolution in Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. This work influenced Darwin’s theories.
  • Celebrated news hoax led by Poet and Writer, Edgar Allan Poe, and printed in the New York Sun, reported a balloon crossing of the Atlantic bringing passengers from Europe to America.
  • First private bath in an American hotel was installed in the New York Hotel, and the first bridal suite was available at the Irving House in New York City.
  • Danish Educator, Bishop Nikolai Grundtvig, founded the first institute for adult education in Denmark. Young people of every class attended the voluntary residential folk high schools in which they are encouraged to educate themselves and others.
  • The Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) was founded in England by George Williams.
  • Political Philosopher, Friedrick Engels, published The Condition of the Working Class in England, in Leipzig, Germany.
  • First public baths and washhouses open in Liverpool, England.
  • Factory Act in England forbade children under 13 to work more than 6 ½ hours a day.
   
1845
  • Jan 28 - Don Francisco Sarracino, Prefect of the Third District, informed the Governor that Navajos had recently raided and robbed the Pueblo of Jemez, but the Governor was unable to furnish troops for their pursuit as they were away on the frontier.
  • Feb 10 - Navajo Chief Jose Sarracino was granted permission by the government of New Mexico to plant crops at the Punto of San Mateo in the Mt. Taylor region.
  • Feb 20 - The Governor advised Don Francisco Sarracino of the Third District, to send a detachment of 50 men to the Canyon of Juan Tafoya in the Mt. Taylor area to stand off the Navajos raiding in that region.
  • April 3 - The Military Commander at the Pueblo of Jemez advised the Governor that Navajos had committed raids and robberies in his jurisdiction. The Governor advised that a force of 100 men, “armed and munitioned” and “under the command of an expert commander” should march as soon as possible to the point of Tunicha in pursuit of them.
  • April 10 - Jose Apodaca, adult male, was killed by Navajos and given ecclesiastical burial at Zuni by the Catholic Priest of that pueblo.
  • May 21 - The Justice at Jemez reported that Navajo stole two saddled animals at Santa Ana. The natives of the pueblo pursued them to Chaco Mesa where they overtook them, killed two Navajos, and recovered the animals. El Huero, Navajo Chief, later requested payment by the Military Commander at Jemez, for the two Navajo warriors killed, but was told to come to the capital at Santa Fe to present his grievance to the Governor.
  • June 19 - Word was received in Santa Fe from Belen that a combined Navajo and Ute attack was expected, and troops were ordered to be prepared for the attack should it occur. Troops at Jemez were also augmented because Chiefs Narbona, El Guero (Huero?), and Archuleta were preparing for war.
  • July 5 - Navajos raided the Pueblo of Cochiti, killing some individuals.
  • July 13 - Navajos raided the Pueblo of Jemez. The inhabitants of the areas were warned to be prepared for further attacks.
  • July 31 - The Bishop planned to travel to Laguna and Zuni, but because of the risk of Navajo attack, the Governor ordered that an escort of 30 men accompany him to Laguna, and an escort of 60 men from Laguna to Zuni, the escort to remain at Zuni with the Bishop until he was ready to return.
  • Sept 3 - The Governor advised Don Francisco Sandoval at Jemez that because of the misfortunes caused at Jemez by Navajo raids, he should take every precaution for that pueblo’s protection and, if possible, to ascertain who the guilty Navajos might be. For this purpose, the Governor dispatched the official interpreter, the soldier Jose Lopez, to Jemez. He later advised Sandoval to confer with the Navajo Chieftain, Cebolla Sandoval, in order to determine, if possible, the intentions of the Navajos.
  • Oct 15 - Chief Narbona and three Navajo warriors presented themselves to the Comandante-General in Santa Fe to make known that the Navajos wished “to continue the peace that they have celebrated” with the Mexicans, and that they had been commissioned by the Utes, who had been to the Navajo country three times but were afraid to come to Santa Fe, to solicit peace in their name.
  • Nov 21 - Juan Andrés Archuleta informed the Governor that Tomas Romero, a Taos Indian, with two of his countrymen had presented themselves at his headquarters to report that “having been in pursuit of some horses stolen from Santo Domingo by the Navajos, in the place of Tierra Amarilla, they were surprised by a considerable number of these Indians, having been attacked at the same time by them, there resulting from the action two warriors and two women dead and three girls captured from that nation: … “ The three captives, accompanied by four companions of the Taos Indians, were sent to San Ildefonso, possibly to be sold.
  • Dec 10 - Governor Armijo reported that Navajos had raided Taos but many Navajo warriors had been slain by the Taos Indians who had been alerted previous to the attack.
  • Dec 27 - Two Navajo girl captives, both servants in the house of Don Jose Antonio Pino, were baptized at Sabinal and given the Christian names of Maria Teresa and Maria Agustina. In the same year, other Navajos were baptized at Isleta, Sandia Pueblo, Tome, Picuris, and Taos.
  • First mention of Anglo-America’s “Manifest Destiny” in an eastern newspaper. Manifest Destiny was the idea that Americans were destined by divine providence to expand their national domain. A popular slogan which expressed the general need for territorial expansion, the exact phrase was printed in the Democratic Review of July 1845 as a rationale for annexation of Texas from Mexico: “… the fulfillment of our manifest destiny to over-spread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” The Manifest Destiny concept was also used to justify the acquisition of Oregon, the purchase of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Nevada. It was also attached to unsuccessful movements to acquire Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Canada.
  • Florida admitted as the 27th U.S. state.
  • Texas accepts annexation to the U.S. and became 28th state. U.S. envoy was sent to Mexico to negotiate the purchase of New Mexico and California. Mexico refused to see him and began military operations to stop U.S. annexation of Texas.
  • Sikh army from the Punjab crossed the Sutlej River to invade British India.
  • France and Britain opposed Rosa’s plan to make Paraguay and Uruguay dependent Argentine states. French and British naval forces blockade the Rio de la Plata for five years.
  • The transition from the 4-stringed "bonjo" to the modern 5-stringed banjo occured.
  • Edgar Allan Poe published The Raven and Other Poems and Tales.
  • Dumas pére published The Count of Monte Cristo, a popular adventure novel.
  • The Portland Vase, the finest existing Roman cameo glass, was restored after being smashed earlier in the year.
  • Horace Wells, Connecticut Dentist, failed in a public attempt to remove a tooth painlessly from a patient anesthetized with nitrous oxide (laughing gas). Although earlier private atttempts were successful, this public demonstration failed because Wells began the operation before the patient was completely anesthetized.
  • Alfred Beach, inventor, established Scientific American magazine.
  • First formal rules for baseball were written by Alexander Joy Cartwright.
  • The U.S. Congress placed presidential election day in the first week in November, after harvest but while roads were still passable.
  • The U.S. Naval Academy ("Naval School") opened at Annapolis, Maryland.
  • Failure of the potato crop caused the Great Famine in Ireland; before it ended, the population was reduced from 8 million to 6.5 million.
   
1846
  • March 18 - The Governor wrote the Prefect Don M.A. y Maestas: “It having come to the attention of this government that the Navajos have declared war, committing murders and carrying off a number of sheep from the Magdalena Mountains, I warn you to circulate the present (news) in all the districts of your command with the object of promptly containing the said incursions, you will prepare very quickly and see that each Justice of Peace prepare the people of his command to follow the Indians, … “
  • April 28 - Sixty men from Cebolletta requested permission to enlist under the Navajo Chief Sandoval, who proposed to fight the enemy Navajos. The Governor granted permission and payment for their services was to be the booty and spoils of war taken from the Navajos. The Governor added “ … that the Government does not aspire to another thing than the punishment of the underhanded enemy which through peace and war is little by little consuming the Department, very obviously reducing to misery the district in your charge”. Details of Sandoval’s campaign are not recorded, but Governor Armijo did express his gratification for its success.
  • June 21 - The “Army of the West” consisting of 1648 men and commanded by Colonel Stephen Watts Kearny, was mobilized of regulars and volunteers at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and departed that place on this date for Santa Fe where, in a bloodless coup, New Mexico, then in possession of Mexico, came under the dominion of the United States. Included in the army were Colonel Alexander William Doniphan and Major Edward Vose Sumner, figures later prominent in the destiny of the Navajos.
  • July 4 - The Governor of New Mexico expressed his appreciation of the Navajo Chief Sandoval’s faithfulness in his alliance with the Mexicans against the rebellious Navajos and promised that Chief Sandoval’s wages for his services would be paid promptly in full. He further advised that since invasion by the United States was imminent, there should be no further movement of forces against the Navajos.
  • July 8 - With war threatened by the Navajos, Governor Armijo ordered that the Third District be divided into three military sections: The First Section, including Bernalillo, Corrales, Alameda, Ranchos, and Albuquerque, to be commanded by Don Julian Perea: the Second Section, including Padillas, Valencia, Tome, and Laguna, to be commanded by Colonel Don Ramon Luna; and the Third Section, including the areas of Belen, Sabinal, and Socorro, to be commanded by Colonel Don Jose Chaves. These commanders were to lead the defense against the Navajos if they attacked at any one of these areas. They were to be given the necessary support of the citizenry.
  • July 11 - The Governor, Manuel Armijo, had intelligence early in July that American troops were en route to invade New Mexico, and on this date sent a letter to Colonel Pascual Martinez at Taos which read: “It is positively known that the forces of the United States which it is announced are coming to take over this Department, are on the march and in order to consult with the most influential sons of the country as to the means we should take for our defense. I instruct you within three days after receipt of this message to present yourself before me bringing with you those citizens named in the list attached who under no pretext will be excused for we are to discuss the welfare of the Department or of its lost cause which should interest all of us. God and Liberty!”
  • Aug 1 - From his camp at Bent’s Fort on the Arkansas River, Stephen Watts Kearny, Commander of the Army of the West, dispatched a letter to Governor and Commanding General Don Manuel Armijo at Santa Fe in which he stated: “By the annexation of Texas to the United States, the Rio Grande from its delta to its source, forms now the boundary line between them (the United States and Mexico) and I am coming by order of my government to take possession of the country over a part of which you are presiding as Governor. I come as a friend and with the disposition and intention to consider all the Mexicans and other inhabitants as friends if they should remain quietly and peaceably in their homes attending to their own affairs. All such persons shall not be molested by any of those who are coming under my orders in their person nor in their property nor in their religion. I pledge myself to the fulfillment of these promises. I come to this part of the United States with a strong military force, and a still stronger one is following us as a reinforcement. I have more troops that I need to overcome any opposition which you may be able to make against us, and for that reason and for the sake of humanity I advise you to submit to fate, and to consider me with the same sentiments of peace and friendship which I have and protest for you and those under your government. Should your Excellency do this, it would be eminently favorable to your interest and that of all your countrymen, and you will receive their blessings and prayers. If, on the contrary, you should decide otherwise, if you should make up your mind to make resistance and oppose us, with such troops as you may be able to raise against us, in that event, I notify you that the blood which may be shed, the sufferings and miseries that may follow, shall fall upon your head, and, instead of the blessings of your countrymen you will receive their curses, as I shall consider all of those your Excellency may present against us armed, as enemies, and they shall be treated accordingly … “
  • Aug 8 - With invasion imminent, Governor Armijo issued a proclamation to the inhabitants of New Mexico in which he stated: “The moment has come at last when the country requires from her sons, the unlimited decision and reserveless sacrifices, which circumstances, extreme under any point of view, claim for its salvation … it has been indispensably necessary to suspend the diplomatic relations with the rejected minister and envoy extraordinary from the North American government. The forces of that government are now advancing on the department. They have already crossed the line, and at this date are very near Colorado. Behold, fellow citizens, the invasion is the sign of alarm that must prepare us for the combat … Today … the fruit of so many and so costly sacrifices, is threatened; … Let us be ready for war since we are provoked to it. Let us not look at the strength of our enemies, nor at the size of the obstacles we have to overcome … With respect to the defense of the department in the actual invasion, … “ Armijo subsequently decided to seek refuge in flight, and after he fled for Chihuahua, Mexico, Don Juan Bautista Vigil y Alarid assumed the reins of leadership, and on August 17, the day before the invasion, he caused to be posted publicly Kearny’s proclamation of August 1, adding a message of his own which read “Notwithstanding the means I have set in motion, it has not been possible for me to calm the fears which the flight of General Armijo has infused in its inhabitants, the desertion of his soldiers, or, that which is more, the dread that has been caused because of the approach of the military forces of the United States of North America to this capital; and Whereas, many families are leaving their homes in order to hide in the deserts, as if said forces were composed of cruel and sanguinary savages, believing that they will have no security, no protection of their lives and interest on the part of the chief commands that army, and in order to quiet these fears down, I have been pleased to command that the proclamation of the said chief of said forces be fixed on the public places”.
  • Aug 15 - At Las Vegas, Kearny addressed the populace from one of the housetops, saying, in part: “ … I have come amongst you by orders of my government, to take possession of your country, … Henceforth I absolve you from all allegiance to the Mexican government, and from all obedience to General Armijo. He is no longer your Governor; … I am your Governor … From the Mexican government you have never received protection. The Apaches and Navajoes come down from the mountains and carry off your sheep, and even your women, … My government will correct all this. It will keep off the Indians, protect you in your persons and property; … “ Proceeding towards Santa Fe, Lt. W.H. Emory noted two days later: “A rumor has reached camp that the 2000 Mexicans assembled in the Canon to oppose us, have quarreled among themselves; that Armijo, taking advantage of the dissensions, fled with his dragoons and artillery to the south … “ When Kearny’s command reached the pass he found the breastworks erected by the New Mexico militia abandoned along with artillery pieces. Of the preparations of Armijo’s militia to meet and ambush Kearny’s advancing troops there, Susan Magoffin, who with her husband had been with a trading caravan en route to Chihuahua, wrote some time later in her diary: “ … While all these men, the citizens of Santa Fe and the adjacent villages, were assembled in the canon, and their families at home left entirely destitute of protection, the Nevijo (Navajo) Indians came upon them and carried off some twenty families. Since Gen. K. - arrived and has been so successful, they have petitioned him to make a treaty with them, which he will not consent to till they return their prisoners, which ‘tis probable they will do thro’ fear, as they deem the Gen. something almost superhuman since he has walked in so quietly and taken possession of the pallace of the great A( r )mijo, their former fear”.
  • Aug 16 - On the 16 and 17of August, 7 Navajos, 4 children and 3 adults, were baptized at the Pueblo of Acoma. In the same year, Navajos purchased or captured from the tribe, or obtained otherwise, were baptized at San Juan, Tome, Socorro, San Miguel del Vado, Taos, Belen, Picuris, Santa Fe, and Albuquerque.
  • Aug 18 - Kearny and his Army of the West entered Santa Fe at 6 p.m., occupying the capital of New Mexico without “ … firing a gun or shedding a drop of blood”. The following day, in the plaza, Kearny addressed the people: “New Mexicans: We have come amongst you to take possession of New Mexico, which we do in the name of the government of the United States. We have come with peaceable intentions and kind feelings toward you all. We come as friends, to better your condition and make you a part of the republic of the United States. We mean not to murder you or rob you of your property. Your families shall be free from molestation; your women secure from violence. My soldiers shall take nothing from you your religion. Religion and government have no connection in our country. There, all religions are equal; one has no preference over the other; the Catholic and the Protestant are esteemed alike. Every man has a right to serve God according to his heart. When a man dies he must render to God an account of his acts to serve God according to his heart. When a man dies he must render to God an account of his acts here on earth, whether they be good or bad. In our government, all men are equal. We esteem the most peaceable man, the best man. I advise you to attend to your domestic pursuits, cultivate industry, be peaceable and obedient to the laws. Do not resort to violent means to correct abuses. I do hereby proclaim that being in possession of Santa Fe, I am therefore virtually in possession of all New Mexico. Armijo is no longer your Governor. His power is departed; but he will return and be as one of you. When he shall return you are not to molest him. You are no longer Mexican subjects; you are now become American citizens, subject only to the laws of the United States. A change of government has taken place in New Mexico and you no longer owe allegiance to the Mexican government. I do hereby proclaim my intention to establish in this department a civil government, on a republican basis, similar to those of our own states. It is my intention, also, to continue in office those by whom you have been governed, except the Governor, and such other persons as I shall appoint to office by virtue of the authority vested in me. I am your Governor - henceforth look to me for protection”.
            Acting Governor Juan Bautista Vigil y Alarid replied to Kearny’s address: “General: The address which you have just delivered, in which you announce that you have taken possession of this great country in the name of the United States of America, give us some idea of the wonderful future that awaits us … It is for us to obey and respect the established authorities, no matter what may be our private opinions. The inhabitants of this department humbly and honorably present their loyalty and allegiance to the government of North America. No one in this world can successfully resist the power of him who is stronger. Do not find it strange if there has been no manifestation of joy and enthusiasm in seeing this city occupied by your military forces. To us the power of the Mexican republic is dead. No matter what her condition, she was our mother. What child will not shed abundant tears at the tomb o f his parents … In the name then, of the entire Department, I swear obedience to the Northern Republic and I render my respect to its laws and authority”. On August 22, Kearny issued a formal proclamation in which he declare, among other things, “ … to protect the persons and property of all quiet and peaceable inhabitants within its boundaries against their enemies, the Eutaws, the Navajoes, and others, … “
            In an effort to vindicate his failure to defend Santa Fe against the United States invaders, and to justify his retreat to El Paso, Governor Manuel Armijo, in Chihuahua, Mexico, addressed a communication to the Minister of Foreign Relations, Interior and Police, on September 8, in which he stated, in part: “ … the United States, that perfidious and faithless power, sent a force … to occupy the State under my command … with the small military force which I had, it was impossible to resist that which was coming from the United States to invade my Department; … I … learned, through one of the Mexicans who managed to leave the enemy camp and join my scouts, that the force which was coming was of not less than 2500 men, nor more than 3000; that they carried 24 pieces of artillery of large caliber, well-supplied and well-mounted … on the 15th I gave orders for … (the auxiliary companies) to march out of Santa Fe and await me at 7 or 8 leagues distance, where I joined them with 200 men, which including the officers was all the (regular) military force there was in the Department … The first indication which the captains of the auxiliary companies gave me was that the soldiers did not want to offer any resistance because they did not have supplies or artillery, and that they did not wish to sacrifice themselves uselessly … Having just made this manifestation, all retreated, and only the 200 men with whom I had left Santa Fe remained with me. Later I convoked a council of officers in which it was resolved unanimously to retreat until we could join forces with the Comandante-General of Chihuahua, which should (then) have been very near our first settlements … I suspected with good reason that the garrison companies, which comprised the major part of my force, would take the same resolution as our auxiliaries. This occurred that night … On the 17th, my forces being reduced to 70 dragoons with 3 pieces of artillery and one howitzer, badly-mounted and worse-supplied, I began my march (i.e., retreat). That evening, having received word that I was being pursued by the enemy, I decided to force my march and, the artillery impeding me, I ordered it spiked at El Mano de las Gallinas, between the points of Galisteo and Serillos. On the 20th I made special report of all these occurrences to the Comandante-General of Chihuahua, assuring him that I would force my marches as much as possible until joining his forces, but no matter how strenuously I did so, I was unable to reach them short of the town of El Paso del Norte. There I put the small force that remained with me at his orders, and from there we continued our march to this capital (Chihuahua) … “
  • Aug 28 - One of General Kearny’s first appointments was that of Henry L. Dodge, or Bi’ee lichii, “Red Shirt”, as he was later known to the Navajos when he served as their Agent, 1853-1856. Kearny appointed him “Treasurer of Santa Fe”.
  • Sept 16 - Lt. Col. C. F. Ruff was ordered by Santa Fe Headquarters: “ … on reaching the neighborhood of Cebolletta, you will dispose of the Troops under your command in such manner as to give greatest protection to the inhabitants of New Mexico on that frontier from the Navajoes (and) other Indians. You will dispatch runners to the Navajoe country with instructions to invite 10 or 12 of their principal men to come to this city for the purpose & give them protection while on the Route. Should you discover among the Navajoes and Property which may be recognized as having been stolen from the inhabitants of New Mexico, you will seize upon it, & cause it to be brought to this city, or tuned over to the proper owners”.
  • Sept 22 - Marcellus Ball Edwards, a soldier in the U.S. Army, recorded in his journal: “Proceeded down the river (Rio Grande below San Felipe) on the same road and taking up the same kind of trade with the natives as heretofore. The Mexicans and Pueblo (Indians) are raising loud complaints against the Navajo. They say they are coming in and taking off their stock and murdering the inhabitants. The Pueblo are fitting out a war party against them; they are to travel with us.
  • Sept 24 - Navajos plundered Laguna Pueblo killing one man and two children, and drove off a herd of sheep. Four days later, soldiers of Col. Congreve Jackson’s command at Laguna witnessed a war dance over four Navajo scalps which had been taken by the Laguna Indians in a successful pursuit of Navajo raiders.
  • Sept - On this same date, at a Convention held in Santa Fe to draw up a plan for a civil government for the Territory of New Mexico, one Hugh N. Smith was elected delegate to the Congress of the United States. His instructions from the Convention included: “ … That whereas, … the want of proper protection against the various barbarous tribes of Indians that surround us on every side, has prevented the extension of settlements upon our valuable public domain, and rendered utterly futile every attempt to explore or develop the great resources of the territory; surrounded by the Eutaws, Comanches, and Apaches, on the north, east, and south, by the Navajos on the west, with Jicarillas with our limits, and without any adequate protection against their hostile inroads; our flocks and herds are driven off by thousands, our fellow citizens, men women and children, are murdered or carried into captivity; many of our citizens of all ages and sexes are at this moment suffering all the horrors of barbarian bondage, and it is utterly out of our power to obtain their release from a condition to which death would be preferable; … Resolved, … That he shall insist upon the permanent establishment of two regiments of troops within the territory; that one of said regiments shall be raised, organized, and officered with this territory, and constituted of the hardy mountaineers and native citizens; … “
  • Sept 30 - After crossing the Rio Grande at Albuquerque and encamping about halfway between that place and Padillas, Lt. W. H. Emory wrote: “ … I struck off on the table lands to the west, and found them a succession of rolling sand hills … I saw here the hiding places of the Navajoes, who, when few in numbers, wait for the night to descent upon the valley and carry off the fruit, sheep, women, and children of the Mexicans. When in numbers, they come in day-time and levy their dues. Their retreats and caverns are at a distance to the west, in high and inaccessible mountains, where troops of the United States will find great difficulty in overtaking and subduing them, but where the Mexicans have never thought of penetrating. The Navajos may be termed the lords of New Mexico … As we marched down the river … the Navajoes attacked the settlements three miles in our rear, killed one man, crippled another, and carried off a large supply of sheep and cattle … They are prudent in their depredations, never taking so much from one man as to ruin him. Armijo never permitted the inhabitants to war upon these thieves. The power he had of letting these people loose on the New Mexicans was the great secret of his arbitrary sway over a people who hated and despised him. Any offender against Armijo was pretty sure to have a visit from the Navajoes … “
            Some years later, Philip St. George Cooke, writing in retrospect, observed that the Navajos were “ … a numerous, and warlike tribe who dwell in fastnesses of the mountains westward of the Del Norte (Rio Grande) … and they were richer than the New Mexicans whose herds and herdsmen they harassed, and that because of the Navajos, New Mexican flocks, since 1832, had been reduced by some eighty percent”.
  • Oct 2 - When the head chiefs of the Navajo, after being invited to Santa Fe to council, failed to arrive. Brig. General Stephen Watts Kearny, commanding the U.S. troops in the newly acquired Territory of New Mexico, ordered Colonel Alexander W. Doniphan of the 1st Regiment Missouri Mounted Volunteers to march with his regiment into Navajo country where “He will cause all the prisoners, and all the property they hold, which may have been stolen from the inhabitants of the territory of New Mexico, to be given up - and he will require of them such security for their future good conduct, as he may think ample and sufficient, by taking hostages or otherwise”.
            Camped at a bend of the Rio Grande near the village of La Joya, Lt. Emory this date recorded: “We received a message from the major domo of the neighboring rancheria, cautioning us to be watchful of our animals, that 40 of the Navajoes had passed the river last night. The incursions of these Indians have prevented the settlement and cultivation of this part of the country … “
  • Oct 3 - Navajos attacked the town of Polvadera on the Rio Grande, forcing the inhabitants to retreat to the safety of their homes, and driving off their cattle and horses. A detachment from General Kearny’s command, camped 12 miles up the Rio Grande, was dispatched in pursuit, but soon returned to report that the Navajos had abandoned the cattle to the pursuing party of New Mexicans, but had escaped with the horses.
  • Oct 5 - At his camp near Socorro, New Mexico, General Kearny issued a proclamation to the effect: “In consequence of the frequent and almost daily outrages committed by the Navajoes upon the persons & property of the inhabitants of the Rio Abajo, by which several lives have been lost, and many horses, mules & cattle stolen from them, and in consequence of the many applications made by them to the undersigned for permission to march into the country of these Indians: Now be it known to all, that I, Brigadier General S. W. Kearny, Commanding the Troops in the Territory of New Mexico, hereby authorize all the inhabitants (Mexican & Pueblos) living in the said district of country, viz the Rio Abajo, to form war parties, to march into the country of their enemies, the Navajoes, to recover their property, to make reprisals and obtain redress for the many insults received from them. The old, the women and the children of the Navajoes must not be injured”.
  • Oct 11 - When Lt. J. W. Abert was at the Pueblo of Santo Domingo, he wrote in his journal: “Old Montejo offered to sell me a Navajo squaw, who happened to pass as we were bargaining for a mule; and he then related a long story about the depredations committed by the Navajoes; that they kept all New Mexico poor, whilst they themselves rolled in wealth; … “ The next day, Abert recorded that on the Rio del Norte (Rio Grande) in the vicinity of Santa Domingo Pueblo, the people lived in fear of the Navajos “ … who descent from the mountains and sweep away the ‘cabaladas’ of the Pueblos and Mexicans who look on unresistingly.“ Three days later at Albuquerque he wrote: “ … we were cautioned by the people against the dangers we would run before reaching Cibolletta, as the war trail of the Navajoes runs through the valley of the Puerco … “
  • Oct 15 - Governor Charles Bent informed the Hon. James Buchanan, Secretary of State that: “ … The Navajoes have been at open war with the Inhabitants of this country for 12 years interrupted by intervals of brief and treacherous peace. They are a warlike and wealthy tribe, there being many individuals among them whose wealth is estimated as far exceeding that of any one person in this Territory. Their principal wealth consists of immense herds of horses, mules, sheep and cattle. The country which they inhabit is mountainous and rugged, and there are many places to which they can retreat in time of danger, which are described as almost inaccessible. These Indians have permanent villages, and cultivate all the grains and fruits known to the Spaniards in this climate. They manufacture blankets of rare beauty and excellence and are acquainted with the use of money. The depredations of these Indians have of late years been confined to the Spanish settlements on the Rio del Norte, from Santa Fe to Socorro, from which they have annually driven off immense flocks of sheep, cattle, horses and stock of every description; … they do not destroy the Mexicans, because they prefer that they should continue to raise stock for them to drive off. Until these Indians are effectually subdued they will continue to blight the prosperity of that portion of this Territory which is exposed to their depredations”. Letters containing similar information had been penned to Buchanan and Tomas Benton in September.
  • Oct 20 - From Santa Fe, Colonel Doniphan wrote the Secretary of War, W. L. Marcy: “General Kearny has ordered me to take my regiment and finish the wars between the Mexicans and Eutaws and Navajoes respectively and then conduct the large traders now stopping in this Territory (at immense daily expense) to Chihuahua … I am pleased to inform the department that on the 15th inst. We closed the war with the Eutaws by a treaty which I doubt not will be lasting … The Navajoes are still committing daily depredations upon the Mexicans. I shall start in a few days to their country - they inhabit the mountains between the Rio Grande and the Colorado of te west … “ Colonel Doniphan’s was the first major U.S. expedition to penetrate Navajo country.
            On this same date, Governor wrote to Col. Doniphan with reference to rumors of an insurrection: “From information received from different parts of this Territory and from various sources, I am led to believe than an insurrection is in contemplation by the native inhabitants, in concert with some Mexican Troops and the inhabitants of El Paseo del Norte. I have good ground to suppose that there are spies and informants amongst us from the lower part of this Territory and from El Paso - with what object I have not been able to ascertain. I am informed that meetings of the people of the Rio Abajo, at Albuquerque and other places below, are frequent and that they communicate by runners. I do not place implicit confidence in these reports, but I am fully convinced that great and general dissatisfaction and discontent prevail among the native inhabitants and I deem it all important for the peace and security of the Territory that every possible precautionary measures cannot possibly produce evil and may do much to prevent it”. The Governor wrote letters of similar import to Brig. General Kearny and to Major Sumner. In his letter to Kearney, Governor Bent added: “ … I received your Proclamation to the inhabitants of the Rio Abajo permitting them to raise volunteer war parties against the Navajoes to a lasting peace … “ On Christmas day, 1846, Bent wrote Colonel Sterling Price: “ … I have become convinced by information received from various sources, that the expected rebellion is a matter of more consequent importance than we at first anticipated, … “ Bent wrote further to Price on December 29 and January 2, 1847. The insurrection to which Governor Bent alluded took place on January 19, 1847.
  • Oct 21 - Five miles from Cubero, New Mexico, Navajos ran off 40 horses from the U.S. Army troops, an advance unit of Colonel Doniphan’s regiment, camped along the Rio San Jose. “Colonel Jackson ordered that a detachment of 60 men … proceed immediately in quest of them, with orders to scalp those with whom they were found, or if they failed in finding them, to take a number from the Navajo sufficient to supply the deficiency”. At Cebolleta, the friendly Navajo Chief Sandoval had joined Colonel Jackson’s command as a guide. Regarding him, one journalist with the expedition wrote: “Sandeval … is rich. He has 5000 sheep, and 100 horses. His situation is one of the most beautiful, being on an elevated plain, 3000 feet above the level of the country, and the mountain rising to snowy peaks behind it. Springs of pure water gush from the rocks, and find their way in rivulets across the plain to the precipice, down which the waters leap, scattering their spray to the winds. A view of the green grass and fine trees, with his beautiful fields of corn and wheat, make one almost forget that it is the abode of an untutored Indian”.
  • Oct 26 - Colonel Doniphan and the main body of troops of the regiment left Santa Fe. In a pincer-type movement, the expedition invaded Navajo country. Describing the expedition, Colonel Doniphan afterwards wrote in his preliminary report: “I left the town of Santa Fe on the 26th of October, and took up the line of march for the country inhabited by the Navajo Indians. This country lies west of the range of mountains bounding the valley of the Del Norte on the west, and extending down the tributaries of the Rio Colorado of the west, near the Pacific ocean. We invaded the country by three routes. Major (William) Gilpin, with 200 men, marched by the northern route, leaving the valley of the Del Norte at the mouth of the Chamas; proceeded up the Chamas to the main dividing chain of mountains, separating the waters of the Del Norte and Colorado; thence down the San Juan, across the Techunica mountain, and by the Red Lake to the valley of the little Colorado. The remaining portion of the regiment left the Del Norte at Albuquerque, and passed up the valley of the Puevea (Puerco) of the west, almost to its source. Captain Reed marched with a detachment through the centre of the country. Captain Parsons further south, and the remaining portion of the regiment further south. Every portion of their country was thus visited, and large numbers of them, perhaps three-fourths of their tribe, collected at the Ojo Oso, where we made a permanent treaty with them … “
            On this date, Lt. J. W. Abert received news that Navajos had raided within 20 miles of Albuquerque and driven off 5000 sheep.
  • Nov 1 - In his journal, Colonel J. T. Hughes, with the Doniphan expedition, recorded: “The regulars passed up to Albuquerque … on their march down the river at or near Isleta they charged upon 60 or 70 Navajoes & killed 2 of them & took an immense quantity of stock from them - They however took off one Spanish women & 5 children. This was near the 1st of November”.
  • Nov 10 - In a letter to the Commissioner, Governor Bent described the Navajos in somewhat similar terms as he had for the Secretary of State on October 15. He wrote: “The Navajoes are an industrious intelligent and warlike tribe of Indians who cultivate the soil and raise sufficient grain for their own consumption and a variety of fruits. They are the owners of large flocks and herds of cattle, sheep, horses and mules and asses. It is estimated that the tribe possess 30,000 head of horned cattle, 500,000 sheep and 10,000 sheep and 400 to 500 head of other stock, and their horses are said to be greatly superior to those raised by the Mexicans. Most of their stock has been acquired by marauding expeditions against the settlements of this Territory. They manufacture excellent coarse blankets and coarse woolen goods for wearing apparel. They have no permanent villages or places of residence, but roam over the country between the river San Juan on the north and the waters of the Gila on the south. The country between these two rivers is about 150 miles in width, consisting of high table mountains difficult of access and affording them as yet effective protection against their enemies. Water is scarce and difficult to be found by those not acquainted with the country, affording another difficult natural safeguard against invasions. Their numbers are variously estimated at from 1000 to 2000 families or from 7000 to 14,000 souls. The Navajoes so far as I am informed are the only Indians on the continent having intercourse with white men, that are increasing in numbers. They have in their possession many prisoners, men, women and children taken from the settlements of this Territory whom they hold and treat as slaves”.
  • Nov 21 - At Bear Springs (Fort Wingate), New Mexico, “ … about 180 Americans and 500 Navajo Indians, including all the head chiefs” met to negotiate a peace treaty, the first of seven to be concluded between the United States and the Navajo nation in the next 22 years. Describing Narbona in his journal, Hughes wrote: “We had not arrival at the place of our camp before we were met by all the head men of the nation. The Chief of all, Narbona, being very sick, was nevertheless mounted on horseback, and brought in. He slept in my camp all night. Narbona, who was probably 70 years old, being held in great reverence by his tribe for the war-like exploits of his youth and manhood, was now a mere skeleton of a man, being completely prostrated by rheumatism, the only disease, though a very common one, in this country. Conformably to a custom of the chief men of his tribe, he wore his finger nails very long, probably one and a half inches - formidable weapons! He appeared to be a mild, amiable man, and though he had been a warrior himself, was very anxious before his death to secure for his people a peace with all their enemies, as well as with us, the ‘New Men’, as he called us”.
            During the negotiations Sarcillos Largos, a “young chief, of great sagacity and boldness, stood up and replied to the American Commander (Doniphan) thus: ‘Americans! You have a strange cause of war against the Navajos. We have waged war against the New Mexicans for several years. We have plundered their villages and killed many of their people, and made many prisoners. We had just cause for all this. You have lately commenced a war against the same people. You are powerful. You have great guns and many brave soldiers. You have therefore conquered them, the very thing we have been attempting to do for so many years. You now turn upon us for attempting to do what you have done yourselves. We cannot see why you have cause of quarrel with us for fighting the New Mexicans on the west while you do the same thing on the east. Look how matters stand. This is our war. We have more right to complain of you for interfering in our war, than you have to quarrel with us for continuing a war we had begun long before you got here. If you will act justly, you will allow us to settle our own differences’.”
  • Nov 22 - A treaty between Colonel Alexander W. Doniphan, Lt. Colonel Congreve Jackson, and Major William Gilpin for the United States, and Narbona, Sarcillos Largos, Caballada de Mucho, Alexandro, Sandoval, Kiatanito (Cayetanito), Jose Largo, Segundo, Pedro Jose, Manuelito, Tapio, Archuletta, Juanico, Savoietta Garcia, Chiefs of the Navajo Nation, was concluded at Bear Spring, New Mexico. Terms provided for “a firm and lasting peace” between the two parties, the people of New Mexico and the Pueblo Indians to be included in the term American people; mutual trade between the parties involved; a mutual restoration of all prisoners, “the several parties being pledged to redeem by purchase such as may not be exchanged each for each”; and the restoration of all property taken by either party from the other since the 18th of August last. This treaty, the first of seven between the United States and the Navajo Nation, was never ratified by the U.S. Senate. Some time later, the Santa Fe Republican summarized the terms of the treaty in one of its columns.
  • Nov 26 - Four days later at Zuni Pueblo under the supervision of Colonel Doniphan and his command, a treaty was concluded between the Navajos and the Zuni Indians.
  • Nov 28 - At his camp near Valverde on the lower Rio Grande, Lt. J. W. Abert reported: “We heard, this morning, of the death of the volunteers who were encamped near us. These men had gone off from camp five or six miles without any weapons, when they were attacked by the Navajoes, who shot them down with reed arrows, and then beat out their brains with rocks; and the Indians drove off 800 sheep. A party of 300 immediately went out in pursuit of the murderers. By the last advices they had not overtaken them”.
  • Nov 30 - In a long letter to Thomas H. Benton, Governor Bent stated: “ … I feel a strong anxiety that every proper measure should be taken by the present Congress not only to secure the effectual and unembarrassed action of a Territorial Government in New Mexico, but also to develop its resources … “ and in order for Congress to aid “ … the Territorial Government in the enforcement of law a military force will be absolutely necessary to quell and to bring into subjection the numerous tribes of Indians who range the Territory and its borders, and have for years past carried on with impunity a predatory warfare against its inhabitants, fatally destructive of its wealth and prosperity, and also to guard its Southern and Southwestern frontiers from the depredations of Mexican bandits who may confidently be expected to infest that part of the country for many years after peace shall have been established with Mexico … The numerous flocks and herds that the Indians have caused to disappear from the valleys and table lands of New Mexico would reappear, the agricultural products of the country would be greatly increased; and it would soon become a Territory capable of sustaining itself … “
  • Dec 18 - Governor Bend informed Colonel Doniphan: “ … a person called Jose Rafael Ballejos living near La Valleta complains that on some night anterior to the 15th Dec. some company of Navajos drove off some 250 sheep. You will confer a favour by making the necessary inquiries into the alleged outrage … “
  • Dec 26 - Governor Gent informed the Secretary of State of the United States with reference to the impending revolt: “I have been informed indirectly that Col. A. W. Doniphan, who, in October last, marched with his regiment against the Navajo Indians, has made a treaty of peace with them. Not having been officially notified of this treaty, I am not able to state the terms upon which it has been concluded; but, so far as I am able to learn, I have but little ground to hope that it will be permanent. On the 17th instant I received information from a Mexican friendly to our Government that a conspiracy was on foot among the native Mexicans, having for its object the expulsion of the United States troops and the civil authorities from the Territory. I immediately brought into requisition every means in my power to ascertain who were the movers in the rebellion, and have succeeded in securing seven of the secondary conspirators. The military and civil officers are now both in pursuit of the two leaders and prime movers of the rebellion: but as several days have elapsed, I am apprehensive that they will have made their escape from the Territory … The occurrence of this conspiracy at this early period of the occupation of the Territory will, I think, conclusively convince our Government of the necessity of maintaining here, for several years to come, an efficient military force … “ Governor Bent was slain by the insurgents at his home in Taos on January 19, 1847.
  • Smithsonian Institution formed in Washington, D.C., at the behest of Englishman James Smithson for the purpose of the increase of knowledge in the U.S. His bequest was incorporated into law as an act of Congress. The Smithsonian became one of the principal repositories for artifacts, art objects, and anthropological materials relating to North American Indian peoples.
  • 1846-1848 - War between U.S. and Mexico over annexation of Texas. U.S. forces under General Taylor defeated the Mexicans at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma and captured Monterrey (Mexico). U.S. naval force occupied Monterey (Calif.) and San Francisco. Henry David Thoreau went to jail after an act of civil disobedience against U.S. expansion into Mexican territory.
            Apache Wars in New Mexico. Mangas Coloradas (Red Sleeves), a Mibreno Apache, joined Cochise, a Chiricahua Apache, in resisting the incursion of miners and the U.S. Army into Apache lands in New Mexico. The miners appealed to the U.S. Army for help against the Apache, who were renowned fighters. Skirmishes went on intermittently for years. In the 1850s, when Mangas Coloradas was over 60 years old, he was captured by miners, beaten senseless, and then released as an abject lesson for other Apache. After he recovered, he led a series of ongoing raids against the U.S. Army and miners that ended only with his death.
  • Oregon’s boundary was established at latitude 49 degrees north.
  • The U.S. Congress failed to enact the Wilmot Proviso, which bans slavery from any territory acquired from Mexico.
  • U.S. and New Granada signed a commercial treaty, giving the U.S. the right of way across the Isthmus of Panama.
  • Michigan became the first U.S. state to enact a law abolishing captial punishment.
  • Iowa became the 29th U.S. state.
  • British government repealed the Corn Laws, which restricted the export and import of grain.
  • British forces defeated the Sikhs at Aliwal and Sobraon. By the Treaty of Lahore, the Sikhs are forced to cede Kashmir and to pay an indemnity of 55 million rupees.
  • British Possessions Act gave Canada the right to establish tariffs.
  • British and French are repulsed at Tamatave while protesting the government’s order that foreigners are subject to Madagascar’s native law.
  • Architect James Renwick designed the Smithsonian Institution building in Gothic Revival style.
  • Herman Melville, American Writer, published his first novel, Typee, dealing with his life among a primitive Polynesian tribe.
  • American Playwright Cornelius Mathews wrote Witchcraft, or the Martyrs of Salem.
  • Edgar Allan Poe American Writer, published the short story, “The Cask of Amontillado”.
  • Emerson’s Poems, included “Woodnotes” and “Give All to Love”.
  • Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, one of Russia’s greatest novelist, published Poor Folk, the first Russian social novel.
  • English Painter and Writer, Edward Lear, published Book of Nonsense, a classic in children’s literature that popularized the limerick.
  • Mérimée published Carmen, a novella.
  • Berlioz composes the popular symphony, La Damnation de Faust.
  • English Painter, John C. Horseley, designed the first painted Christmas card.
  • Belgian instrument maker, Antoine Joseph Sax, patented the saxophone.
  • William T.G. Morton, Boston Dentist, publicly demonstrated the effectiveness of ether as an anesthetic. John C. Warren, New England’s leading Surgeon, performed the operation. Morton’s claim that he discovered ether led to years of controversy.
  • Elias Howe, Massachusetts inventor, patented a lock-stitch sewing machine.
  • German Astronomers, Johann Galle and Heinrich d'Arrest discovered the planet, Neptune.
  • Ascanio Sobrero, Italian Chemist, synthesized nitroglycerin.
  • Hugo von Mohl, German Botanist, identified the principal cellular substance and named it protoplasm.
  • First recorded baseball game was played at Elysian Field in Hoboken, N.J., between the New York Nine and the Knickerbockers. The New York Nine won, 23-1.
  • Smithsonian Institution for scientific research was established by Congress with L1,000,000 left by the will of James Smithson, an English Chemist.
  • Henry Rawlinson opened up ancient Babylonian and Assyrian history by deciphering the Persian cuneiform inscriptions (written with wedge-shaped letters) at Behistun, Iran.
  • Daily News, first cheap English newspaper was founded, with Author, Charles Dickens, as author.
   
1847
  • Jan 19 - Taos Indians, later aided by insurgent Mexicans, Navajos, and Apaches, led a revolt against American rule. On this date they attacked Governor Charles Bent’s house, killed and scalped Bent and two others. Later, on February 4, troops attacked and defeated Taos Pueblo, killing about 150 Indians and sustaining the loss of seven killed and 45 wounded, many of them fatally, including Captain John Henry K. Burgwin, one of the commanders. Tomas, one of the Taos leaders, was later killed in the guardhouse by a private, ad Pablo Montoya, another leader, was hanged February 7.
  • March 5 - Four adult male citizens, killed by Navajos in a recent attack near Belen, were given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest there.
  • March 23 - From Zuni, Fray Mariano de Jesus Lopez wrote: “The notorious failure of my health, the continual wars of the gentile Navajos that intercept the road from Laguna to the Pueblo of Zuni, causing much havoc (as is generally known and is on record in the decrees and letters … at different times issued by the government in order that campaigns might go out to punish and reprimand these savages that have devastated, and even unto today continue devastating, New Mexico). All this together and the lack of sufficient escort, has made me postpone until today my inspection of this mission in my care. Defying a thousand risks I have succeeded finally in coming, together with the small campaign of Spaniards that sallied from Cebolleta against the Navajo under the command of Captain Jose Manuel Saavedra; … “
  • March 28 - Two Navajo girls, ages 16 and 20,captives adopted by Juan Cristobal Armijo, were baptized at Los Ranchos de Albuquerque. During the same year, other Navajo captives and servants were baptized at Santa Fe, Bernalillo, Tome, Laguna, Taos, Belen, and Albuquerque.
  • June 24 - Juan Antonio Rael, adult citizen of Alameda, after being killed by the Navajos in the “desert” was given ecclesiastical burial by the Catholic Priest at Albuquerque. Less than a month later - on July 20 - another male adult from San Mateo, also killed by Navajos, was buried by the Priest at Albuquerque.
  • Aug 12 - The Santa Fe Weekly Gazette published the following: “We have been shown a communication to the St. Louis Republican, dated Santa Fe August 12, 1847, from which we make the subjoined extract in order that the reader may be enabled to judge for himself whether or not, we now, 13 years after the date of the letter (Gazette issue of Oct. 13, 1860),are receiving any better protection against the Navajo Indians, than did the people then, one year after the acquisition of the Territory … We commend the extract to the attention of the reader. It is as follow: ‘Upon the establishment of a civil government in New Mexico, the rights of person, property and religion were guaranteed to the people by proclamation - they were also promised protection against the Indians, and the restitution of all property stolen since the entrance of the Americans. I am compelled to say none of these promises have been redeemed. The volunteer detachment, at different points of the frontier, and even the soldiery in garrison at the capital, pay little respect to military discipline or order, and none of the civil authorities or the rights of citizens. Col. A. W. Doniphan made a hollow peace with the Navajos, took their promises for things, the performance of which he was ordered, and should have required on the spot. And in consequence, before Col. D.’s command had fairly retired from their country two of his men were killed by the Indians and a series of robberies and outrages commenced which have been continued with impunity up to the present time, until many of the defenseless inhabitants are utterly ruined. During no one year, for the last 20 years, have the depredations of these Indians been so destructive to life and property. Upwards of 50 citizens have been killed or carried into captivity, and more than 60,000 head of horses, mules and sheep have been carried off from the country called the Rio Abajo. No efforts have been made to protect that frontier or to redeem the promises made to that people. But instead of the fulfillment of these promises, they seem daily to become less regarded. Droves of horses and mules have been driven off, and persons killed, within six miles of the capitol. In the frontier settlements the inhabitants are driven from their grazing grounds and even some of the villages have been deserted.’”
  • Sept 2 - The first American expedition to penetrate the Canyon de Chelly was led by Major Robert Walker, who, with his Battalion of Volunteers, departed for the Navajo country on this date. A contemporary recorded in his diary: “The Santa Fe battalion started today on an expedition into the Navajo country, these Indians have violated their treaty with Colonel Doniphan by their robberies of the Mexicans. The three companies composing this battalion are made up principally or reenlisted volunteers and are a very wild and reckless set. Nearly every man left drunk!” Provisioned for two months, the campaigners suffered greatly after their supplies became exhausted even before reaching the mouth of the Canyon de Chelly, from which point they ventured up the canyon six miles before returning.
            Commenting on the expedition, the Santa Fe Republican reported: “ … Col. Doniphan, by order of Gen. Kearny, invaded this country last fall, when these troublesome Indians met him in council and entered into a treaty of peace, since which time they have, at different periods, made incursions into this Territory, killing many Mexicans and driving off large herds of stock, a part of which belonged to Americans, … it is deemed necessary that these outrages should no longer be tolerated and Maj. (Robert) Walker, with the Battalion of Volunteers who have re-entered the service, have left to invade the country the second time and bring them to subjection … all of these men are hardened and inured to the service and are determined upon giving this set of marauders a chastising which they will not soon forget … “ On October 16, the Republican reported: “Navajo Expedition. Major Walker and several others arrived here on Wednesday … and we learn from them, that they left about the 10th of September the river below Albuquerque, and marched almost due west to the Oho de Jarah (Ojo de Jaras), about 150 miles, where they left their wagons and took pack animals, and ten days provisions, and proceeded to Zuni and Red Lake … About 20 miles from the Lake, he Lieutenant found about 20 Indians, who fired on him from an ambush, at a place called Pueblo Colorado, but without effect, when he made a gallant charge upon them in advance of his killing one dead and the men wounding several others. The Indians then fled up the mountains, leaving their horses which were captured or killed. Being out of provisions, the whole column and about 140 strong, proceeded to the Canon of Chai, which they entered and marched six miles up, but finding it impracticable to advance, and convinced there were no animals or provisions to be had, they returned to the mouth of it, a few scattering Indians showing themselves on the mountain tops. Here they were forced to kill a mule to eat, and from that time, until an Express returned from Zuni had to live upon mule, dog meat, and wild parsley … They are under great obligations to the people of Zouni, who furnished everything they could when they found them in distress, treating them kindly and hospitably … The Indians have all fled to the Rio St. Juan, their stock being driven off and the crops removed. The country is destitute of water and nothing can be had for men or horses. The command is now encamped at the Zouni Mountain waiting for their return, when they will again move”. On November 20, the Republican reported: “El Paso Expedition. Lieut. Gibbons and several men of Major Walker’s battalion have come up, from whom we learn that the battalion was encamped on the river near Socorro. They enjoyed excellent health, and had been feasting on venison which they procured in great abundance at one camp in the Navijo country, killing as high as 120 deer … “
  • Oct 9 - The Santa Fe Republican reported: “About the time Major Walker’s Battalion left for the Navajo country (see entries for Sept. 2 & 10) to make war upon this tribe of Indians, a party of Mexicans under command of Ramon Luna left from Socorro for the purpose of retaliating against these Indians for the depredations that they have committed upon the Rio Abajo. And we learn from Captain Skilman who arrived from below the first day of this week, that the group has returned having captured 40 or more prisoners, 75 horses and 1500 head of sheep. They killed 10 men of the enemy, and lost one man killed, and had five wounded”.
  • Nov 27 - On this date, the Santa Fe Republican reported: “ … Several Navajo Chiefs came in recently to treat for Peace, but they were told that their principal men must come and bring in to be delivered up all the prisoners they have taken, together with the stock of all kinds, before Peace could be made between them and the U. States, and they then left to return, agreeing to come back the next full moon for this purpose, and in the manner required. We have no faith in their promise to do so, nor do we believe that a lasting peace can be made until they have felt the full force and power of the Government, but should they, contrary to all expectation, bring in the stolen property and the prisoners, the indications of their friendly intentions will be strong enough to give hopes that we shall have no further trouble with them in this territory. I the mean time we hope the Government at Washington will take decided measures to have at lest a Battalion sent into their country early next spring to lay it waste and wage a war of destruction, until they are anxious for peace, and glad to abandon their depredations upon the people of this territory. They should be sent out to pursue them until they are found, and never return except when a peace which can be depended upon has been made … “
  • Dec 6 - In his Message to the Senate and House of Representatives of New Mexico, Governor Donaciano Vigil stated: “ … During the past year many incursions have been made upon the citizens of the territory especially in the Rio Abajo by the Nabajo tribe of Indians. This hostile and rapacious band have frequently made peace, but only for their temporary convenience, and have always broken their mountain homes by reason of the insurmountable difficulties by troops going into their country, they have been able with impunity to dart into the settlements and before any force could be collected to oppose them, have committed serious damage to the settlements by driving off cattle and sheep, and occasionally have killed the inhabitants who attempting to protect their property. It is much to be desired that some organization can be had by which their invasions can be checked until the government shall act in the matter and put an effectual stop to their audacity, by inflicting upon these Indians a summary chastisement … “
  • U.S. forces under Gen. Taylor defeated the Mexicans under Gen. Santa Anna at Buena Vista. U.S. forces under Gen. Winfield Scott captured Veracruz, defeated the Mexicans at Cerro Gordo, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, and Chapultepec, and entered Mexico City. Peace negotiations with Mexico began.
  • All of California came under U.S. control.
  • Radical Irish group tried to secure repeal of the union of Great Britain and Ireland. British Parliament suspended Habeas Corpus Act for Ireland.
  • Swiss federal forces defeated the forces of the Sonderbund, which was then dissolved, and the central government was strengthened.
  • Liberia became a free and independent republic.
  • British defeated the Kaffirs in South Africa and set up British Kaffraria (now part of Transkei) as a native preserve.
  • French suppressed the Berbers in Algeria.
  • Longfellow wrote “Evangeline”, one of his most famous poetic works.
  • Melville’s novel Omoo depicted life in Tahiti.
  • Each of the Bronte sisters published a successful and controversial semi-autobiographical novel: Charlotte, Jane Eyre; Emily, Wuthering Heights; Anne, Agnes Grey..
  • Liszt gave his final piano concert and devoted himself to composing and conducting.
  • Charles Baudelaire, French Poet and Critic, who inspired the Symbolist movement, published his only novel, the autobiographical La Fanfarlo.
  • English Painter, George Frederic Watts, exhibited “Alfred Inciting the Saxons”, one of the best of his early works.
  • Joseph Leidy, Pennsylvania Paleontologist, suggested that the environment affected changes (evolution) with a species.
  • American Medical Association was established in Philadelphia with Jonathan Knight, Connecticut Physician as President.
  • Maria Mitchell, Massachusetts Astronomer, discovered a comet and determined its orbit.
  • Samuel M. Kier, Pennsylvania businessman, sold bottled petroleum as a medicine.
  • J. Herschel published his extensive observations of the Southern sky.
  • Babbage made his little known invention of the ophthalmoscope.
  • Sir James Simpson, English Physician, published Account of a New Anaesthetic Agent, in which the use of chloroform in childbirth was established.
  • Adhesive postage in the U.S. are fist used.
  • Irish immigration into the U.S. reached 105,000 (3 times that of the preceding year) because of the potato famine in Ireland.
  • British Factory Act restricted the working day to 10 hours for women and children between 13 and 18 years of age.

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Updated: 05/02/2010
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