E Ta Des Pah
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A group photo of Navajos Scouts who had participated with the Army during the Geronimo Campaign (1872-1886). The photo was taken probably at the time they received the Indian Campaign Medal about 1907 or 1908. The Medal, approved by Congress on January 11, 1905, and authorized through General Order 12 in 1907, consisted of a bronze medallion on a red and black ribbon. It was awarded to these Navajo Scouts who served with valor and courage against the Apaches in Arizona in 1873. The medal can be seen on the left chest of the men in the photo. Their names are: (1) Calvasa, (2) George, (3) Chatsosee, (4) Nastagi, (5) Naschi, (6) Frank Taylor, (7) Casa Miri, (8) Slim Jim, (9) Navaho Tom, (10) Hosteen Nez, (11) Mosto, (12) As Keen Nez-zy, (13) Sombrero Ancho, (14) Atcitty Spahe, (15) Guerito, (16) Charley No.1, (17) Palo Cosa, (18) Quintana, (19) Canuco Pinto, (20) Don Juan, (21) Wooly Willie, (22) Mike, (23) Navaho John, (24) Apachito, (25) Sam Nelson, (26) Dine Chili, (27) Woolto, (28) Jack, (29) Francisco, (30) Marianito, (31) Choiska, (32) Maya, (33) Moqui, (34) Biga, (35) Pinto, (36) Charley Chiquito, (37) Bicente.
Francisco was one one of the Headman of the Navajos. Also Francisco was his full name. He as with other Navajos, had fought sporadically with the United States, and with other Indian tribes, specifically the Utes and different Pueblos tribes. Because of this, other Indian tribes would join the United States Army to help defeat the different Navajo clans or groups.
In 1844, great concern was caused during that time because Francisco's daughter became captive to a New Mexican, a Spanish-American. On October 16, 1844, an order was issued commanding that Francisco's daughter be returned to him, in exchange for another "Navajo female" that Francisco was willing to trade for his daughter.
Starting in 1864, Kit Carson became in charge of the Navajo Campaign, and during the years of 1864 to 1866, he developed the scourch or burnt earth campaign. Kit Carson's U.S. Army with the help of other Indian tribes, would tear and burn down Hogans and corrals, burn the crops, shoot to kill the sheep, goats, cattle, and horses, and cut down and burn the fruit trees. Navajos were on the verge of starving to death, and because of this, they surrendered.
During this time Francisco was captured and became a captive of Antonio Manzanares , a New Mexican. He was baptized into the Catholic Church in 1864 at the Parish of Abiquiu, New Mexico. The location of the Catholic Baptismal Book can be found at Abiquiu Parish, File No. B-1a, for years 1861-1869, and 1869-1907.
After this, Francisco and about 2,000 Navajos were herded by foot on what has been known as the "Long Walk" by the United States Army to Fort Sumner, in Bosque Redondo, New Mexico. When all the Navajos were captured, from 6,000 to 8,000 Navajos resided at Fort Sumner. Two hundred to 300 Navajos died from the "Long Walk". About 2,000 died from Small Pox inside the concentration camp of Fort Sumner.
The end of the Navajo's captivity began with the Navajo Chiefs and Headmen signing (with their "X" mark), a United States Treaty with the Navajo on June 1, 1868, to end all hostility between the Navajos and the United States of America. Francisco was one of the signers of the Treaty with the United States.
The United States then used Navajos as Scouts during the Geronimo Campaign, and Francisco was one of them. The Geronimo Campaign was from 1872 to 1886, though it was not known when he stopped being a scout. He received the Indian Campaign Medal. This medal, authorized by Congress in 1876, consisted of a bronze medallion on a red and black ribbon and was awarded to those who served with valor and courage.
The information and details that I have found on Francisco can be found from the following books:
E Ta Des Pah
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