At Jemez, on January 20, 1824, 14 articles of peace, the result of a meeting held at Isleta in December of 1823, were signed by Jose Antonio Vizcarra, Bartolome Baca, and Antonio El Pinto, "General" of the Navajo Nation and presumably the son of the Antonio El Pinto who was killed by Apaches in 1793. The terms of peace included:

1. Navajos to surrender all New Mexican captives and any apostates living with them.
2. The New Mexicans to return Navajo captives, provided they wish to, since to send back those who had received baptism or intended to was un-Christian.
3. The point raised in Article 2 has been referred to the government in Mexico City.
4. Claims may be made against the Navajos for robberies committed in violation of the truce asked for at Isleta.


Navajos shall avoid abuse of horses stolen in time of war.


Alcaldes to pursue Navajo marauders and recover property; if Indians rejoin their rancherias, petty captains shall force them to give satisfaction.
7. If New Mexicans rob Navajos, the Indians shall seek aid of the local authorities; the jefe político shall order them to grant it, seize the culprits, make them return the stolen goods, and punish them accordingly.
8. Since these negotiations are undertaken in good faith, the Navajos propose all those stipulations consistent with their way of life acknowledged on previous occasions.
9. Navajos are free to appoint petty captains in their customary manner; the latter may exact fulfillment of these treaties.
10. Petty captains are responsible for making the Navajo ranchos said to be on the other side of the Sierra Datil rejoin the tribe, lest all Navajos commit robberies, putting the blame on them.
11. Since Chiefs Juanico, El Chato, and Facundo have conspicuously absented themselves from the preliminary discussions, petty captains appointed shall urge them to join in as proof of their peaceful intentions.
12. Once the Navajos ratify the peace they shall treat well any New Mexican traveling through their country and shall put aside all ill feelings towards their kinsmen who choose to remain with the New Mexicans.
13. Since the nature of peace is to quiet old grievances originating in time of war, both parties shall be obliged to behave accordingly because of the New Mexicans' generosity in not charging the Navajos with the innumerable robberies they have committed.
14. In accordance with the New Mexicans' Christian duty they urge the pagan nation to embrace the Holy Faith of their own free will.


  1. Tratados de paz, Jemez, Jan. 20, 1824 - free translation from Reeve, 1971, pp. 244-245; cited in McNitt, 1972, p.66 & n.66.

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